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Sabtu, 26 Juli 2008

PANIC

by The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition | Date: 2008


panic crisis in financial and economic conditions, marked by public loss of confidence in the financial structure. Panics are characterized by a general rush of investors to convert their assets into cash, with runs on banks and a rapid fall of the securities market. Bank failures and bankruptcies naturally follow. Students of economic cycles have paid much attention to the process of panics, but without definitive result. Perhaps the earliest panic of modern capitalism occurred during 1720 in France and England. Known as the "Mississippi Bubble," it was touched off by wild speculation in the stock of John Law's colonizing company (see Mississippi Scheme ). The first major panic in the United States came in 1819, after the War of 1812. The panic of 1837 was much more severe; it was brought on primarily by irresponsible financial operations in Western lands. Another crisis in 1857 was caused in part by massive European speculation in American railroads. Thus, when the panic struck it affected both Europe and the United States. In 1869 stock manipulations brought on the panic known as Black Friday . In 1873 there was a financial crisis in Vienna, as well as an American panic marking the bitter contest between agrarians (see Populist party ), caught by overextended credit, and the financial interests. That conflict continued and was again reflected in the crises that came in the panics of 1893 and 1907. No great panic occurred again until 1929, when the U.S. stock market crash helped to precipitate a worldwide financial crisis. Confidence was not restored until after 1933, and the effects of the panic were felt throughout the Great Depression of the 1930s. Since 1929, central banks have been quick to provide liquidity to falling markets in order to prevent panics. For example, when the New York Stock Exchange dropped over 508 points (22.6%) on Oct. 19, 1987, the Federal Reserve released a large sum of money overnight to meet demands on brokers.

Bibliography: See M. A. Bernstein, The Great Depression (1989); C. P. Kindleberger, Manias, Panics, and Crashes (1989); C. R. Morris, Money, Greed, and Risk (1999).



Author not available, PANIC., The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2008




The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright 2008 Columbia University Press

Read More...... by The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition | Date: 2008


panic crisis in financial and economic conditions, marked by public loss of confidence in the financial structure. Panics are characterized by a general rush of investors to convert their assets into cash, with runs on banks and a rapid fall of the securities market. Bank failures and bankruptcies naturally follow. Students of economic cycles have paid much attention to the process of panics, but without definitive result. Perhaps the earliest panic of modern capitalism occurred during 1720 in France and England. Known as the "Mississippi Bubble," it was touched off by wild speculation in the stock of John Law's colonizing company (see Mississippi Scheme ). The first major panic in the United States came in 1819, after the War of 1812. The panic of 1837 was much more severe; it was brought on primarily by irresponsible financial operations in Western lands. Another crisis in 1857 was caused in part by massive European speculation in American railroads. Thus, when the panic struck it affected both Europe and the United States. In 1869 stock manipulations brought on the panic known as Black Friday . In 1873 there was a financial crisis in Vienna, as well as an American panic marking the bitter contest between agrarians (see Populist party ), caught by overextended credit, and the financial interests. That conflict continued and was again reflected in the crises that came in the panics of 1893 and 1907. No great panic occurred again until 1929, when the U.S. stock market crash helped to precipitate a worldwide financial crisis. Confidence was not restored until after 1933, and the effects of the panic were felt throughout the Great Depression of the 1930s. Since 1929, central banks have been quick to provide liquidity to falling markets in order to prevent panics. For example, when the New York Stock Exchange dropped over 508 points (22.6%) on Oct. 19, 1987, the Federal Reserve released a large sum of money overnight to meet demands on brokers.

Bibliography: See M. A. Bernstein, The Great Depression (1989); C. P. Kindleberger, Manias, Panics, and Crashes (1989); C. R. Morris, Money, Greed, and Risk (1999).



Author not available, PANIC., The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2008




The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright 2008 Columbia University Press

finance

by The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition | Date: 2008


finance theory and practice of conducting large public and private dealings in money. Important institutions of private finance include those that deal with insurance , banking , stocks (see stock ), bonds, and other securities. With the development of the national state, public finance—the management of the revenues, expenditures, and debts of the state—has been of great political, as well as economic, importance. The most important source of government revenue is taxes, but sale of public properties and franchises, as well as the sale of interest-bearing bonds, also contribute. Since the Korean War, a large part of governmental expenditures has gone for various military and defense needs. Other important areas of governmental expenditure are health, education, and welfare (the Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid programs); interest on the national debt; and public works. Important institutions of international finance are the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Monetary Fund .

Bibliography: See D. Allen, Finance (1983); D. Swain, Managing Public Money (1987); L. Harris et al., ed., New Perspectives on the Financial System (1988); N. Gianaris, Contemporary Public Finance (1989).



Author not available, FINANCE., The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2008




The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright 2008 Columbia University Press


Read More...... by The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition | Date: 2008


finance theory and practice of conducting large public and private dealings in money. Important institutions of private finance include those that deal with insurance , banking , stocks (see stock ), bonds, and other securities. With the development of the national state, public finance—the management of the revenues, expenditures, and debts of the state—has been of great political, as well as economic, importance. The most important source of government revenue is taxes, but sale of public properties and franchises, as well as the sale of interest-bearing bonds, also contribute. Since the Korean War, a large part of governmental expenditures has gone for various military and defense needs. Other important areas of governmental expenditure are health, education, and welfare (the Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid programs); interest on the national debt; and public works. Important institutions of international finance are the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Monetary Fund .

Bibliography: See D. Allen, Finance (1983); D. Swain, Managing Public Money (1987); L. Harris et al., ed., New Perspectives on the Financial System (1988); N. Gianaris, Contemporary Public Finance (1989).



Author not available, FINANCE., The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2008




The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright 2008 Columbia University Press


Mummy in Toraja (Part IV)

Naparampo : Tomi Lebang

Rabu, 19 Mei 2004



No Rest for the Wicked

The mummy flew around the guestroom and then, in a puff of smoke, it vanished into thin air. Those present stood with mouths open, aghast at what they had just seen. One by one they began to fall to the ground with what turned out to be an incurable disease...

This scene is a product of Herg_'s fertile imagination, a well-known Belgian comic artist. He wrote it for his Tintin series, Seven Mysterious Balls, published in 1948. But Herg_ had not conjured up this idea out of the blue. Two decades prior to this piece of writing, Europe had been rocked by a series of deaths that appeared to be connected with an excursion in to the burial chamber of a pyramid built for Tutankhamen, an Egyptian pharaoh. The chamber was explored in 1922, and soon afterwards 21 people died from mysterious causes.

What about the fate of those people who have plundered burial chambers in Toraja? Though it is no comparison to the sensational example of Tutankhamen, misfortune has also befallen hundreds of people who have explored or robbed various burial sites in Toraja. In 1995, a mummy estimated to be over 400 years old was seized by thieves. This particular mummy was considered special because it was still complete, with thick strands of hair and skin that was practically wrinkle-free. But that was not the only reason for its appeal. This mummy was also considered a divine incarnation by locals. Not long after the police investigated, a suspect called Tatengkeng died suddenly, but the cause of death could not be determined by forensic investigators. Soon after, two of Tatengkeng's friends followed suit and five other partners-in-crime suffered memory loss. Tatengkeng's family was plagued by terrible dreams before handing the mummy in to police.

A number of foreign antique collectors appear to have suffered from curses after purchasing antiques from Torajan burial chambers. One Frenchman, let's call him Francois, obtained a tau-tau for Rp30 million in Rantepao, South Sulawesi. Whilst the specimen impressed his colleagues, Francois himself suffered ongoing nightmares. In his dreams the statue came to life and attacked him. Eventually, because he could no longer endure the sleepless nights, the tau-tau was returned to Rantepao last February.

Layuk Sarungallo, a customary law expert in Ke'te Kesu, Sanggalangi, has an equally impressive story to tell. He claims that in 1984 an English scientist stole and transported back to England a skull from one of the cave burial sites in Ke'te. The villagers were oblivious to the theft because there were many such caves, each of which contained hundreds of corpses. A year later, a neatly wrapped parcel arrived in Ke'te. Inside it was the skull. It was followed by an anonymous letter bearing a London stamp, offering an explanation of the crime that had been committed and a request for forgiveness. The anonymous writer made certain not to forget sending another letter to thank the community after regaining his sense of calm.

In 1993, Layuk's younger brother Tinting Sarungallo had an unforgettable experience when visiting a museum in Osaka, Japan. As soon as the curator realized there was a visitor from Toraja he asked Layuk whether he would help the museum by taking back a tau-tau statue the museum had collected for display. The reason for the request was that the statue had been haunting people.

How did these supernatural phenomena arise? According to Layuk, the answer must partly derive from the respect that Toraja people have for their ancestors. During burial, the corpse and its ceremonial dress undergo lengthy magic rituals. Consequently, these so-called `artifacts' can react badly to those who mistreat them or do not observe the significance of the rituals. Layuk believes that misfortune befalls thieves because plundering sacred sites is taboo for the Toraja people. They believe that such deeds bring with them powerful and disturbing curses.

Ironically, the frequency of thefts in Toraja has not ebbed at all. This would suggest that the mystical spells cast by deceased ancestors do not sufficiently intimidate the thieves. Or perhaps this is because more concrete `curses'-poverty and hunger-provide a more powerful urge for thieves to continue with their deeds.

Tomi Lebang (Toraja)



Read More...... Naparampo : Tomi Lebang

Rabu, 19 Mei 2004



No Rest for the Wicked

The mummy flew around the guestroom and then, in a puff of smoke, it vanished into thin air. Those present stood with mouths open, aghast at what they had just seen. One by one they began to fall to the ground with what turned out to be an incurable disease...

This scene is a product of Herg_'s fertile imagination, a well-known Belgian comic artist. He wrote it for his Tintin series, Seven Mysterious Balls, published in 1948. But Herg_ had not conjured up this idea out of the blue. Two decades prior to this piece of writing, Europe had been rocked by a series of deaths that appeared to be connected with an excursion in to the burial chamber of a pyramid built for Tutankhamen, an Egyptian pharaoh. The chamber was explored in 1922, and soon afterwards 21 people died from mysterious causes.

What about the fate of those people who have plundered burial chambers in Toraja? Though it is no comparison to the sensational example of Tutankhamen, misfortune has also befallen hundreds of people who have explored or robbed various burial sites in Toraja. In 1995, a mummy estimated to be over 400 years old was seized by thieves. This particular mummy was considered special because it was still complete, with thick strands of hair and skin that was practically wrinkle-free. But that was not the only reason for its appeal. This mummy was also considered a divine incarnation by locals. Not long after the police investigated, a suspect called Tatengkeng died suddenly, but the cause of death could not be determined by forensic investigators. Soon after, two of Tatengkeng's friends followed suit and five other partners-in-crime suffered memory loss. Tatengkeng's family was plagued by terrible dreams before handing the mummy in to police.

A number of foreign antique collectors appear to have suffered from curses after purchasing antiques from Torajan burial chambers. One Frenchman, let's call him Francois, obtained a tau-tau for Rp30 million in Rantepao, South Sulawesi. Whilst the specimen impressed his colleagues, Francois himself suffered ongoing nightmares. In his dreams the statue came to life and attacked him. Eventually, because he could no longer endure the sleepless nights, the tau-tau was returned to Rantepao last February.

Layuk Sarungallo, a customary law expert in Ke'te Kesu, Sanggalangi, has an equally impressive story to tell. He claims that in 1984 an English scientist stole and transported back to England a skull from one of the cave burial sites in Ke'te. The villagers were oblivious to the theft because there were many such caves, each of which contained hundreds of corpses. A year later, a neatly wrapped parcel arrived in Ke'te. Inside it was the skull. It was followed by an anonymous letter bearing a London stamp, offering an explanation of the crime that had been committed and a request for forgiveness. The anonymous writer made certain not to forget sending another letter to thank the community after regaining his sense of calm.

In 1993, Layuk's younger brother Tinting Sarungallo had an unforgettable experience when visiting a museum in Osaka, Japan. As soon as the curator realized there was a visitor from Toraja he asked Layuk whether he would help the museum by taking back a tau-tau statue the museum had collected for display. The reason for the request was that the statue had been haunting people.

How did these supernatural phenomena arise? According to Layuk, the answer must partly derive from the respect that Toraja people have for their ancestors. During burial, the corpse and its ceremonial dress undergo lengthy magic rituals. Consequently, these so-called `artifacts' can react badly to those who mistreat them or do not observe the significance of the rituals. Layuk believes that misfortune befalls thieves because plundering sacred sites is taboo for the Toraja people. They believe that such deeds bring with them powerful and disturbing curses.

Ironically, the frequency of thefts in Toraja has not ebbed at all. This would suggest that the mystical spells cast by deceased ancestors do not sufficiently intimidate the thieves. Or perhaps this is because more concrete `curses'-poverty and hunger-provide a more powerful urge for thieves to continue with their deeds.

Tomi Lebang (Toraja)



Mummy in Toraja (Part III)

Naparampo : Tomi Lebang

Senin, 17 Mei 2004




Candra Tulungallo:
"A mummy was sold for Rp10 billion"

Few thieves and fences of tau-tau have been put behind bars, thanks to protection-whether direct or indirect-of security officials, mummy owners and their own kind.



Candra Tulunggalo, 39, is one of the few fences to have ever been sent to jail. He served four months in prison last year for purchasing tau-tau in February 1999.



An old hand in this illegal business, Candra, who now sells Toraja woven cloth, says he got out of the business. He began hunting and trading objects from Toraja graves when still in his teens. As a result, he dropped out from Atmajaya University in Makassar and lost his position as an operational director in a forwarding company in Tanjungpriok, North Jakarta.



On June 7, he shared his experiences with TEMPO's Tomi Lebang in his house at the foot of a hill in the suburbs of Makale city, Toraja. Excerpts:
_________________________________________________________________

Do mummy hunters still frequently come to you?



Prospective buyers from Makassar still visit me quite often. Someof them claim that the mummies to be purchased are protected by the government, as they hold a permit for the purpose.



Who are they?



These people are from outside Toraja. They come from Java, Batam, Brunei-even Saudi Arabia. Usually the artifacts are taken to Bali or Jakarta. In Denpasar, for example, they are displayed in souvenir shops. In Toraja, the fence and buyer is an antique goods dealer with big capital. When they are in Denpasar or Jakarta, the objects are sold to foreigners.



How are these artifacts taken out of Toraja?



The smugglers have their own tricks. Usually the artifacts are taken by ship. It's safer as inspection is usually not very tight.



Are stolen mummies or tau-tau still frequently offered to you?



Yes. The sellers usually come from villages. I've often rejected them as the artifacts are not covered by documents from the families owning the tau-tau, the village heads or even the subdistrict heads. Without documents, the artifacts are illegal.



Is it true that the theft continues because the perpetrators are from the families of the mummies themselves?



Yes, but not always. In fact, it goes like this. Sometimes the family owning a mummy doesn't know the mummy has disappeared. Or, sometimes they are aware of the disappearance but will not report it to the authorities until several years later. As a result, the authorities will be at a loss as to where to find the mummy-it's long gone.



The graves from which mummies are stolen are located up high, on steeply sloping mountainsides. How do people climb up there?



Generally, desperate thieves are always ready to put their lives at risk. They use a rope to climb and-as far as I know-none of them have fallen. To steal two or three mummies, a group of them comes in an automobile. They work at night. The people living around the burial cave do not dare steal for fear of a curse. They only give the thieves tips and get some money in return.



Besides mummies, which tau-tau are usually favorites among thieves?



Very old ones: about 100 to 200 years old.



How can they distinguish the very old tau-tau from recent ones?



There is an obvious physical difference. Very old statues look more lively and reflect charisma as they were usually made by people possessing supernatural powers. Thieves usually know their target very well. This indicates family involvement in the thefts.



There are quite a few fake mummies to fool collectors. How are they made?



Dolls are wrapped up with chicken skin placed inside out. Sometimes there is a piece of magnet inside to fool people. If a wristwatch gets close to it, for example, it will refuse to run. The impression is that the mummy has magic powers. Fraud like this is often found in Mamasa, Polmas regency. A fake mummy is usually sold cheap, about Rp2 million. Once I met a Manado-Chinese man in Makassar. He offered me a fake mummy and told me it could make me win in gambling, tell me future events and protect me from hooligans. At a glance, it looks like a genuine mummy, but close inspection will show it is only a fake.



How much does a genuine tau-tau cost?



It depends on the buyer. The average price ranges between Rp3 million and Rp10 million.



Do you have any idea about the sales turnover of artifacts in Toraja?



There is no exact figure. Your income comes not only from the sales of artifacts but also from providing tips about tau-tau or other objects. A mummy, so I've heard, was sold for Rp10 billion to one overseas collector.


Read More...... Naparampo : Tomi Lebang

Senin, 17 Mei 2004




Candra Tulungallo:
"A mummy was sold for Rp10 billion"

Few thieves and fences of tau-tau have been put behind bars, thanks to protection-whether direct or indirect-of security officials, mummy owners and their own kind.



Candra Tulunggalo, 39, is one of the few fences to have ever been sent to jail. He served four months in prison last year for purchasing tau-tau in February 1999.



An old hand in this illegal business, Candra, who now sells Toraja woven cloth, says he got out of the business. He began hunting and trading objects from Toraja graves when still in his teens. As a result, he dropped out from Atmajaya University in Makassar and lost his position as an operational director in a forwarding company in Tanjungpriok, North Jakarta.



On June 7, he shared his experiences with TEMPO's Tomi Lebang in his house at the foot of a hill in the suburbs of Makale city, Toraja. Excerpts:
_________________________________________________________________

Do mummy hunters still frequently come to you?



Prospective buyers from Makassar still visit me quite often. Someof them claim that the mummies to be purchased are protected by the government, as they hold a permit for the purpose.



Who are they?



These people are from outside Toraja. They come from Java, Batam, Brunei-even Saudi Arabia. Usually the artifacts are taken to Bali or Jakarta. In Denpasar, for example, they are displayed in souvenir shops. In Toraja, the fence and buyer is an antique goods dealer with big capital. When they are in Denpasar or Jakarta, the objects are sold to foreigners.



How are these artifacts taken out of Toraja?



The smugglers have their own tricks. Usually the artifacts are taken by ship. It's safer as inspection is usually not very tight.



Are stolen mummies or tau-tau still frequently offered to you?



Yes. The sellers usually come from villages. I've often rejected them as the artifacts are not covered by documents from the families owning the tau-tau, the village heads or even the subdistrict heads. Without documents, the artifacts are illegal.



Is it true that the theft continues because the perpetrators are from the families of the mummies themselves?



Yes, but not always. In fact, it goes like this. Sometimes the family owning a mummy doesn't know the mummy has disappeared. Or, sometimes they are aware of the disappearance but will not report it to the authorities until several years later. As a result, the authorities will be at a loss as to where to find the mummy-it's long gone.



The graves from which mummies are stolen are located up high, on steeply sloping mountainsides. How do people climb up there?



Generally, desperate thieves are always ready to put their lives at risk. They use a rope to climb and-as far as I know-none of them have fallen. To steal two or three mummies, a group of them comes in an automobile. They work at night. The people living around the burial cave do not dare steal for fear of a curse. They only give the thieves tips and get some money in return.



Besides mummies, which tau-tau are usually favorites among thieves?



Very old ones: about 100 to 200 years old.



How can they distinguish the very old tau-tau from recent ones?



There is an obvious physical difference. Very old statues look more lively and reflect charisma as they were usually made by people possessing supernatural powers. Thieves usually know their target very well. This indicates family involvement in the thefts.



There are quite a few fake mummies to fool collectors. How are they made?



Dolls are wrapped up with chicken skin placed inside out. Sometimes there is a piece of magnet inside to fool people. If a wristwatch gets close to it, for example, it will refuse to run. The impression is that the mummy has magic powers. Fraud like this is often found in Mamasa, Polmas regency. A fake mummy is usually sold cheap, about Rp2 million. Once I met a Manado-Chinese man in Makassar. He offered me a fake mummy and told me it could make me win in gambling, tell me future events and protect me from hooligans. At a glance, it looks like a genuine mummy, but close inspection will show it is only a fake.



How much does a genuine tau-tau cost?



It depends on the buyer. The average price ranges between Rp3 million and Rp10 million.



Do you have any idea about the sales turnover of artifacts in Toraja?



There is no exact figure. Your income comes not only from the sales of artifacts but also from providing tips about tau-tau or other objects. A mummy, so I've heard, was sold for Rp10 billion to one overseas collector.


Mummy in Toraja (Part II)

Naparampo : Tomi Lebang

Senin, 17 Mei 2004



Disturbing the Dead

How does the buying and selling of mummies and other burial artifacts from Toraja take place?

Clutching a cloth filled with betel nuts, the old lady-she has seen more than a century go by-looks over her uninvited guests with suspicion. "In da la mi daka" ("What do you lot want?") she demands in a thick Torajan accent. She is standing at the front door of a lookout house in Dende village, Tana Toraja, South Sulawesi. Her arched back makes it difficult for her to look up at the people before her.

When she had heard why TEMPO journalists had arrived on her doorstep the old woman smiled. She groped around for the key on the hook and then showed us in to the main room. It was not that large. It boasted a simple sofa, a mattress with a pink cover, a cupboard, a table and a chair. Rays of sunlight peeked through the blinds covering a small window. The breeze brought with it the aromas of the bushes and undergrowth surrounding the house.

This frail old lady-Tasik Bua by name-stooped for a moment to rearrange the bedcover that was dangling to the floor. Then, from behind the sofa she brought forth a wooden box. She stood still, quiet for a moment, and then she brought the box out of the room.

In the box there was an ancient object that had recently been the cause of quite a commotion in Dende village: a mummy estimated to be 400 years old.

This rigid corpse was a miniature one: 70 centimeters in length and weighing only 900 grams. The skin covering it was a blackened yellow color. A section of its hair was complete, but another part was missing, along with the skin covering the scalp. Two teeth, dull with age, showed from its partly open mouth.

From a distance the mummy looked more like a puppet. Its still-perfect hand stretched out with fingers as long as 2 centimeters. The mummy was wrapped in fibers from pineapple leaves. The feet were covered by cloths, one of which had a hole developing. Between its two arms was a small bundle of money. "The children in the village call the mummy Susan, like the puppet Ria Enes that they see on the television," revealed Sattu Pindan, Tasik Bua's grandchild.

But how did Susan, a mummy, end up in this house? The answer to this question stems from events that took place a year ago. Back then, Susan was still in a burial chamber on a riverbank beside Mount Tallang Sura', on the outskirts of Dende village. Hundreds of Dende villagers had been buried there, many of them dating back centuries.

Last year, not long after an elderly man from Dende village was buried in the chamber, an unfortunate event took place. Three villagers entrusted with the task of burying the corpse were overcome by temptation to plunder the mummy known as Susan. The evening after they had fulfilled their tasks, they made their way back up the ledge of the riverbank.

Their plan was to sell Susan in an antiques market in Rantepao. But Tanan's family (Tanan was one of the thieves) was terrified to see that Susan was being stored in their own house. "At first, I thought it might be leftover meat from a party," said Dauppulu', Tanan's wife.

Not long after his family had discovered her, Susan was handed in to the Dende village chief with an explanation. "We did not want to be cursed," added Dauppulu'.

Tanan and the two other thieves were brought before the village council and punishments were meted out to them. In the end, however, they were not reported to the police. "We still consider these people a part of the family," said Hatsen Bangri', Village Chief of Dende.

Because it is more than likely that someone else will try to steal her, Susan is now kept under a vigil in the house of Tasik Bua. Every morning at least four village youths take turns to guard Susan. Although the mummy is generally considered to be safe, various outsiders continue to tempt villagers to part with Susan for a sum of money. "Some collectors have offered up to Rp2.5 billion," Hatsen commented.

Accounts of burial plunders always seem to involve at least one of the local villagers. Even though they might not commit the deed themselves, family members act as informants. After all, not everyone knows where these mummies are located.

Tanan, for example, guarded the Mount Tallang Sura' burial chamber. He was the only person in the village who knew where Susan was located. Tanan is also said to know precisely what "mysterious" feats Susan is capable of performing. For example, the mummy allegedly knocks on the entrance to the burial chamber to let people know her spirit still resides in the cave. And although hundreds of corpses have been stacked up with the occasional addition, somehow Susan always ends up on top.

Another mummy that was entombed in a chamber in Da'buaran Makale, Toraja, went missing in 1989. This one belonged to the family of Yohanis Pallay and was more than 100 years old. The mummy was almost sold to foreign tourists before police intervened at the last minute. The Makale Court handed down a jail term and other customary punishments to the local buffalo herder who committed the theft.

In 1994, a theft took place in Sillanan Mengkendek village, Tana Toraja, and another in Mamasa, both of which were committed by locals. A theft in Sillanan was committed by eight people under the leadership of primary school teacher J.R. Tandirerung. This mummy was to be sold to a buyer in Makassar. But before it was sold, Tandirerung and one of his associates were captured.

The likelihood of mummy thefts in Toraja is on the increase with greater demand for them and other burial objects in the cities and from overseas buyers. According to Rukka Lindung, who owns a souvenir store in Toraja, a tau-tau (ancient wooden statue particular to older burial sites) can reach up to Rp50 million each. Original mummies can be sold for billions of rupiah. But there are no fixed prices. It all depends upon the negotiation between the potential buyer and the go-between who communicates with the seller. "If it is a real mummy, buyers are usually willing to pay any price," said Rukka. He also suggested that an individual could make up to Rp60 million a month trading in burial objects.

The scalper, or go-between, plays a central role in this business. They usually own a souvenir shop or are tour guides operating in and around the Toraja area. Apart from seeking out the goods, these scalpers also "export" these illegal goods overseas.

According to Candra Tulangallo, a former tau-tau trader who was jailed for four years for this very reason, customers mostly come from Europe, Saudi Arabia and Brunei. Tanete Pong Masak, a sociologist from Atmajaya University, Jakarta, admits that during study abroad she once met with a mummy collector in France. "The house was filled with antiques, including a mummy from Toraja. This person also had contacts with a museum and an international antiques trader," she told Dwi Arjanto from TEMPO.

How are these antique and fragile goods transported overseas? According to Candra, mummies are generally sent from Toraja to Makassar overland and are later shipped from Makassar. This method is considered safer than air transport, which is more frequently inspected for security and customs. "The typical route is Toraja-Makassar-Denpasar," says Candra. Some find their way to Jakarta, Yogyakarta and Semarang.

In Semarang, on May 26 last year, customs officers uncovered a smuggling racket involving 33 objects-four of them were tau-tau from Toraja hidden amongst 132 other art objects. These tau-tau are currently kept in the Office of Historical & Ancient Artifacts (SPSP) Yogyakarta.

It is not yet clear what the government will do with the smuggled tau-tau. But police and customs officers are also suspects in this illegal trade. Documents held by SPSP mention Asikin, an antiques trader from Yogyakarta, as one who is implicated in this trade.

Sixty-year-old Asikin owns an antiques store in Patehan Lor, Yogyakarta. He has long been tied up with the export business to overseas buyers. He admitted to TEMPO that last year he arranged a shipment of two containers to customers in Spain and Switzerland. The containers were filled with tau-tau from Toraja.

But Asikin denies that he has been trading in protected cultural goods. He claims that the tau-tau he sells are imitations produced in his own studios. "The people I employ for this are experts. New goods are made to appear old," he argued. But Asikin's arguments are not accepted by Drs. Gunadi, a Heritage Representative for South Sulawesi. From evidence that he has collected, Gunadi is certain that Asikin's tau-tau are indeed originals from Toraja.

So who's telling the truth? Law No. 5 of 1992 on Protected Cultural Items, states that all antiques and cultural artifacts must be accompanied by an official letter from the government (SK) concerning their status.

Asikin's tau-tau, for example, must be checked properly. If it can be shown that these are indeed imitations, SPSP should then request a certificate verifying this from the government. This process would take a very long time.

Such lengthy legal procedures hardly provide an effective net with which to snare illegal traders. And as the empirical tests are being conducted, the thieves and traders will continue their illegal operations.

The illicit trade in ancient and sacred burial objects will continue and will probably even grow-who knows when this will come to an end. At worst, it might continue until all the gravestones in Toraja have been upturned.

Tomi Lebang (Toraja)



Read More...... Naparampo : Tomi Lebang

Senin, 17 Mei 2004



Disturbing the Dead

How does the buying and selling of mummies and other burial artifacts from Toraja take place?

Clutching a cloth filled with betel nuts, the old lady-she has seen more than a century go by-looks over her uninvited guests with suspicion. "In da la mi daka" ("What do you lot want?") she demands in a thick Torajan accent. She is standing at the front door of a lookout house in Dende village, Tana Toraja, South Sulawesi. Her arched back makes it difficult for her to look up at the people before her.

When she had heard why TEMPO journalists had arrived on her doorstep the old woman smiled. She groped around for the key on the hook and then showed us in to the main room. It was not that large. It boasted a simple sofa, a mattress with a pink cover, a cupboard, a table and a chair. Rays of sunlight peeked through the blinds covering a small window. The breeze brought with it the aromas of the bushes and undergrowth surrounding the house.

This frail old lady-Tasik Bua by name-stooped for a moment to rearrange the bedcover that was dangling to the floor. Then, from behind the sofa she brought forth a wooden box. She stood still, quiet for a moment, and then she brought the box out of the room.

In the box there was an ancient object that had recently been the cause of quite a commotion in Dende village: a mummy estimated to be 400 years old.

This rigid corpse was a miniature one: 70 centimeters in length and weighing only 900 grams. The skin covering it was a blackened yellow color. A section of its hair was complete, but another part was missing, along with the skin covering the scalp. Two teeth, dull with age, showed from its partly open mouth.

From a distance the mummy looked more like a puppet. Its still-perfect hand stretched out with fingers as long as 2 centimeters. The mummy was wrapped in fibers from pineapple leaves. The feet were covered by cloths, one of which had a hole developing. Between its two arms was a small bundle of money. "The children in the village call the mummy Susan, like the puppet Ria Enes that they see on the television," revealed Sattu Pindan, Tasik Bua's grandchild.

But how did Susan, a mummy, end up in this house? The answer to this question stems from events that took place a year ago. Back then, Susan was still in a burial chamber on a riverbank beside Mount Tallang Sura', on the outskirts of Dende village. Hundreds of Dende villagers had been buried there, many of them dating back centuries.

Last year, not long after an elderly man from Dende village was buried in the chamber, an unfortunate event took place. Three villagers entrusted with the task of burying the corpse were overcome by temptation to plunder the mummy known as Susan. The evening after they had fulfilled their tasks, they made their way back up the ledge of the riverbank.

Their plan was to sell Susan in an antiques market in Rantepao. But Tanan's family (Tanan was one of the thieves) was terrified to see that Susan was being stored in their own house. "At first, I thought it might be leftover meat from a party," said Dauppulu', Tanan's wife.

Not long after his family had discovered her, Susan was handed in to the Dende village chief with an explanation. "We did not want to be cursed," added Dauppulu'.

Tanan and the two other thieves were brought before the village council and punishments were meted out to them. In the end, however, they were not reported to the police. "We still consider these people a part of the family," said Hatsen Bangri', Village Chief of Dende.

Because it is more than likely that someone else will try to steal her, Susan is now kept under a vigil in the house of Tasik Bua. Every morning at least four village youths take turns to guard Susan. Although the mummy is generally considered to be safe, various outsiders continue to tempt villagers to part with Susan for a sum of money. "Some collectors have offered up to Rp2.5 billion," Hatsen commented.

Accounts of burial plunders always seem to involve at least one of the local villagers. Even though they might not commit the deed themselves, family members act as informants. After all, not everyone knows where these mummies are located.

Tanan, for example, guarded the Mount Tallang Sura' burial chamber. He was the only person in the village who knew where Susan was located. Tanan is also said to know precisely what "mysterious" feats Susan is capable of performing. For example, the mummy allegedly knocks on the entrance to the burial chamber to let people know her spirit still resides in the cave. And although hundreds of corpses have been stacked up with the occasional addition, somehow Susan always ends up on top.

Another mummy that was entombed in a chamber in Da'buaran Makale, Toraja, went missing in 1989. This one belonged to the family of Yohanis Pallay and was more than 100 years old. The mummy was almost sold to foreign tourists before police intervened at the last minute. The Makale Court handed down a jail term and other customary punishments to the local buffalo herder who committed the theft.

In 1994, a theft took place in Sillanan Mengkendek village, Tana Toraja, and another in Mamasa, both of which were committed by locals. A theft in Sillanan was committed by eight people under the leadership of primary school teacher J.R. Tandirerung. This mummy was to be sold to a buyer in Makassar. But before it was sold, Tandirerung and one of his associates were captured.

The likelihood of mummy thefts in Toraja is on the increase with greater demand for them and other burial objects in the cities and from overseas buyers. According to Rukka Lindung, who owns a souvenir store in Toraja, a tau-tau (ancient wooden statue particular to older burial sites) can reach up to Rp50 million each. Original mummies can be sold for billions of rupiah. But there are no fixed prices. It all depends upon the negotiation between the potential buyer and the go-between who communicates with the seller. "If it is a real mummy, buyers are usually willing to pay any price," said Rukka. He also suggested that an individual could make up to Rp60 million a month trading in burial objects.

The scalper, or go-between, plays a central role in this business. They usually own a souvenir shop or are tour guides operating in and around the Toraja area. Apart from seeking out the goods, these scalpers also "export" these illegal goods overseas.

According to Candra Tulangallo, a former tau-tau trader who was jailed for four years for this very reason, customers mostly come from Europe, Saudi Arabia and Brunei. Tanete Pong Masak, a sociologist from Atmajaya University, Jakarta, admits that during study abroad she once met with a mummy collector in France. "The house was filled with antiques, including a mummy from Toraja. This person also had contacts with a museum and an international antiques trader," she told Dwi Arjanto from TEMPO.

How are these antique and fragile goods transported overseas? According to Candra, mummies are generally sent from Toraja to Makassar overland and are later shipped from Makassar. This method is considered safer than air transport, which is more frequently inspected for security and customs. "The typical route is Toraja-Makassar-Denpasar," says Candra. Some find their way to Jakarta, Yogyakarta and Semarang.

In Semarang, on May 26 last year, customs officers uncovered a smuggling racket involving 33 objects-four of them were tau-tau from Toraja hidden amongst 132 other art objects. These tau-tau are currently kept in the Office of Historical & Ancient Artifacts (SPSP) Yogyakarta.

It is not yet clear what the government will do with the smuggled tau-tau. But police and customs officers are also suspects in this illegal trade. Documents held by SPSP mention Asikin, an antiques trader from Yogyakarta, as one who is implicated in this trade.

Sixty-year-old Asikin owns an antiques store in Patehan Lor, Yogyakarta. He has long been tied up with the export business to overseas buyers. He admitted to TEMPO that last year he arranged a shipment of two containers to customers in Spain and Switzerland. The containers were filled with tau-tau from Toraja.

But Asikin denies that he has been trading in protected cultural goods. He claims that the tau-tau he sells are imitations produced in his own studios. "The people I employ for this are experts. New goods are made to appear old," he argued. But Asikin's arguments are not accepted by Drs. Gunadi, a Heritage Representative for South Sulawesi. From evidence that he has collected, Gunadi is certain that Asikin's tau-tau are indeed originals from Toraja.

So who's telling the truth? Law No. 5 of 1992 on Protected Cultural Items, states that all antiques and cultural artifacts must be accompanied by an official letter from the government (SK) concerning their status.

Asikin's tau-tau, for example, must be checked properly. If it can be shown that these are indeed imitations, SPSP should then request a certificate verifying this from the government. This process would take a very long time.

Such lengthy legal procedures hardly provide an effective net with which to snare illegal traders. And as the empirical tests are being conducted, the thieves and traders will continue their illegal operations.

The illicit trade in ancient and sacred burial objects will continue and will probably even grow-who knows when this will come to an end. At worst, it might continue until all the gravestones in Toraja have been upturned.

Tomi Lebang (Toraja)



Mummy in Toraja (Part I)

Naparampo : Tomi Lebang

Senin, 17 Mei 2004



Toraja custom demands that ancestors be held in great esteem, regardless of expense. The funeral rite for a rambu solo', a member of the "golden caste" (nobility), for instance, may cost hundreds of millions of rupiah for the slaughter of at least 24 buffaloes. Those belonging to the "iron and wood castes" (middle class) use 6-12 buffaloes and the "grass-roots caste" only need several sows as a sacrifice.

"Descendants are obliged to treat their forebears appropriately. In this way, the ancestors will bestow fortunes on and take good care of their offspring as well," says Prof. Dr. Marrang S. Paranoan, an expert in Toraja culture at Makassar's Hasanuddin University.

Organizing an interment rite at exorbitant cost-sometimes as much as Rp1 billion-is the summit of Torajan pride. But it entails incurring big debts at the same time, to be borne by their progeny.

Take David Layuk, 53, who admitted to being uneasy in his own birthplace of Madandan, Central Toraja. He often has to spend too much-at least, a great deal more than his salary as head of Public Prosecution of Makele, Tana Toraja, South Sulawesi.

For the funeral ceremony of a close relative, David must donate at least one buffalo. A sow is enough for a distant relative. And this happens almost every month. In fact, a buffalo costs Rp10 million and a sow Rp1 million. "My debts in the Bolu slaughterhouse in Rantepao are mounting," he complained to TEMPO in early June. "I can't afford to repay them. The expenses for such parties are far greater than those for my own family."

The list of other Davids indicates the existence of a ceaseless burden weighing on the Toraja community in general. Being in the vicious circle of debts, Toraja finds it very difficult to grow.

This economic difficulty gets worse with gambling in the guise of cockfighting, which frequently accompanies funeral ceremonies. "Toraja is now a haven for cockfighting in South Sulawesi," revealed Tanete Adrianus Pong Masak, a Toraja-born sociologist at Atmajaya Catholic University in Jakarta. "A rambu solo' rite without cockfights is not complete," he claims.

With a population of 381,000 (1995 census), Toraja is not endowed with abundant natural resources. Its agriculture produces only coffee, potatoes, beans and cloves, with annual paddy harvests depending on the season. The livestock sector is dominated by pig breeding. Exports by tourism-related industrial sub-sectors fare better in Toraja. Its small-scale or handicraft industries register 2,646 business units (Central Board of Statistics, 1995).

Toraja's unique culture has undoubtedly maintained its tourism industry in a top position for years. Based on records at the Central Board of Statistics, in July 2000 foreign tourists entering Sulawesi via Hasanuddin Airport in Makassar increased 64.4 percent over preceding months, mostly visiting Tana Toraja. In comparison, Bali, Indonesia's major tourist destination, only enjoyed a 16.62 percent rise.

When the tourist season arrives from April to September, Toraja's souvenir shops always teem with visitors. A shop can make a weekly profit of Rp15 million.

Unfortunately, the shops also illicitly sell articles derived from hitherto sanctified tombs. The trade in cemetery loot has eventually become ironic in the Toraja community's transformation. Tanete admitted this: "Some traditional values have grown outdated. The excess of Toraja's tourism business has led to commercialization of local customs." According to him, it's necessary to seek an alternative for Tana Toraja's advancement through other potential economic areas, such as the region's rich mining resources.

Without better economic development, the theft of bits and pieces of remains may be difficult to halt. The exorbitantly expensive rites will only be an absurdity when people desecrate their ancestors' sanctuaries because of the poverty they have left in their passing away.

Tomi Lebang (Toraja)



Read More...... Naparampo : Tomi Lebang

Senin, 17 Mei 2004



Toraja custom demands that ancestors be held in great esteem, regardless of expense. The funeral rite for a rambu solo', a member of the "golden caste" (nobility), for instance, may cost hundreds of millions of rupiah for the slaughter of at least 24 buffaloes. Those belonging to the "iron and wood castes" (middle class) use 6-12 buffaloes and the "grass-roots caste" only need several sows as a sacrifice.

"Descendants are obliged to treat their forebears appropriately. In this way, the ancestors will bestow fortunes on and take good care of their offspring as well," says Prof. Dr. Marrang S. Paranoan, an expert in Toraja culture at Makassar's Hasanuddin University.

Organizing an interment rite at exorbitant cost-sometimes as much as Rp1 billion-is the summit of Torajan pride. But it entails incurring big debts at the same time, to be borne by their progeny.

Take David Layuk, 53, who admitted to being uneasy in his own birthplace of Madandan, Central Toraja. He often has to spend too much-at least, a great deal more than his salary as head of Public Prosecution of Makele, Tana Toraja, South Sulawesi.

For the funeral ceremony of a close relative, David must donate at least one buffalo. A sow is enough for a distant relative. And this happens almost every month. In fact, a buffalo costs Rp10 million and a sow Rp1 million. "My debts in the Bolu slaughterhouse in Rantepao are mounting," he complained to TEMPO in early June. "I can't afford to repay them. The expenses for such parties are far greater than those for my own family."

The list of other Davids indicates the existence of a ceaseless burden weighing on the Toraja community in general. Being in the vicious circle of debts, Toraja finds it very difficult to grow.

This economic difficulty gets worse with gambling in the guise of cockfighting, which frequently accompanies funeral ceremonies. "Toraja is now a haven for cockfighting in South Sulawesi," revealed Tanete Adrianus Pong Masak, a Toraja-born sociologist at Atmajaya Catholic University in Jakarta. "A rambu solo' rite without cockfights is not complete," he claims.

With a population of 381,000 (1995 census), Toraja is not endowed with abundant natural resources. Its agriculture produces only coffee, potatoes, beans and cloves, with annual paddy harvests depending on the season. The livestock sector is dominated by pig breeding. Exports by tourism-related industrial sub-sectors fare better in Toraja. Its small-scale or handicraft industries register 2,646 business units (Central Board of Statistics, 1995).

Toraja's unique culture has undoubtedly maintained its tourism industry in a top position for years. Based on records at the Central Board of Statistics, in July 2000 foreign tourists entering Sulawesi via Hasanuddin Airport in Makassar increased 64.4 percent over preceding months, mostly visiting Tana Toraja. In comparison, Bali, Indonesia's major tourist destination, only enjoyed a 16.62 percent rise.

When the tourist season arrives from April to September, Toraja's souvenir shops always teem with visitors. A shop can make a weekly profit of Rp15 million.

Unfortunately, the shops also illicitly sell articles derived from hitherto sanctified tombs. The trade in cemetery loot has eventually become ironic in the Toraja community's transformation. Tanete admitted this: "Some traditional values have grown outdated. The excess of Toraja's tourism business has led to commercialization of local customs." According to him, it's necessary to seek an alternative for Tana Toraja's advancement through other potential economic areas, such as the region's rich mining resources.

Without better economic development, the theft of bits and pieces of remains may be difficult to halt. The exorbitantly expensive rites will only be an absurdity when people desecrate their ancestors' sanctuaries because of the poverty they have left in their passing away.

Tomi Lebang (Toraja)



Jumat, 25 Juli 2008

Pesta Adat 'Rambu Solo' di Tana Toraja Gerbang Memasuki Alam Kekal

Naparampo : Pong Sean

Selasa, 19 Juli 2005


KEMATIAN bagi yang hidup adalah sebuah keniscayaan. Demikian juga bagi masyarakat Tana Toraja, Sulsel. Tapi, sebagai gerbang ke alam yang lain, masyarakat Tana Toraja punya tradisi sendiri bagi tiap kerabatnya yang meninggal; pesta adat Rambu Solo'.
DI balik pegunungan yang sulit terjangkau kendaraan, di atas lahan yang sedikit lapang, tampak berjejer rumah-rumah dari bambu. Modelnya sederhana. Bahkan, tidak berlebih bila dinyatakan tak layak ditinggali. Dalam Bahasa Toraja, rumah-rumah bambu itu dikenal dengan nama Lantang.

Rumah-rumah bambu itu dibuat bersambung. Sebuah rumah besar, tongkonan, sebagai rumah khas adat Toraja seolah menjadi pusat dari rumah-rumah bambu itu. Sebab, di kiri kanan rumah besar itulah, rumah-rumah bambu itu didirikan. Tiap sekat rumah bambu itu diberi nomor.

Pendirian rumah-rumah bambu itu merupakan pertanda akan dimulainya sebuah pesta adat dalam tradisi masyarakat Tana Toraja. Pesta adat atas meninggalnya kerabat. Pesta adat yang merupakan warisan tradisi para leluhur; upacara penguburan atau Rambu Solo'.

Dalam bahasa lain, Rambu Solo' juga kerap dimaknai sebagai pesta kematian. Akan tetapi, makna tentu bukan berpesta atas kematian kerabat, melainkan upacara mengantar kepergian kerabat yang telah berjasa dalam hidupnya.

Siang itu, Kamis 14 Juli 2005. Di daerah Kamiri, Sangalla, Tator, berlangsung pesta adat Rambu Solo atas kematian Helena Rambulangi dalam usia 95 tahun. Hampir semua perhatian masyarakat sekitar tertuju pada acara ini. Malah, ada yang datang khusus, termasuk para turis datang jauh-jauh, hanya untuk menyaksikan jalannya acara ini.

Bahkan, ada yang sudah mengikuti upacara ini sejak Sabtu, 9 Juli. Kamis siang itu, memang menjadi puncak upacara Rambu Solo; mengantar jenazah ke pemakaman. Sebelumnya, Sabtu 9 Juli, kerabat yang datang sudah diminta mengisi lantang yang tersedia, termasuk logistik yang dibutuhkan selama acara pemakaman.

Pada hari yang sama juga digelar Ma'karudusan. Dua ekor kerbau dikorbankan sebagai pertanda dimulainya acara pemakaman. Tidak berselang lama, fase Ma'pasa' Tedong juga digelar. Semua kerbau yang telah disepakati keluarga untuk dikorbankan dikumpulkan di halaman Tongkonan tempat pesemayaman yang meninggal. Kerbau diarak berkeliling bala'kaan sebanyak tiga kali.

Keesokan harinya, secara berturut-turut dilakukan pemindahan jenazah dari Tongkonan ke Lumbung. Tiba saat Ma'pasonglo', jenazah dipindahkan dari Lumbung ke Lakkian yang berada di lokasi tempat pemakaman, setelah dilakukan ibadah. Pemindahan dilakukan dengan arak-arakan.

Hari berikutnya, keluarga yang berduka menerima kunjungan dari kerabat dan tamu lain yang menyampaikan turut berduka cita. Biasanya berlangsung selama dua hari.

Tamu dan kerabat yang datang lebih dulu mendaftar pada pos penerimaan tamu. Saat itu, tamu juga mendaftarkan hewan atau benda yang dibawanya untuk dicatat panitia. Pendaftaran ini terkait dengan pajak yang harus dibayar yang bagi masyarakat Toraja sudah menjadi salah satu sumber PAD terbesar.

Tamu yang sudah mendaftar lalu masuk ke lokasi Katongkonan secara bergiliran. Para tamu diterima secara resmi oleh keluarga dan dijamu minum kopi, teh, atau pangan. Sesudah dijamu, tamu menuju Lantang masing-masing untuk makan dan istirahat. Selanjutnya, rombongan tamu lainnya akan diterima secara resmi.

Puncak acara adalah mengarak jenazah menuju pemakaman. Semua kerbau yang sudah disepakati dikorbankan harus potong dan dagingnya dibagi-bagikan secara adat sesuai peruntukannya.

APA yang dilakukan dalam pesta Rambu Solo' sesungguhnya hanyalah sebuah simbol. Simbol dari sebuah tradisi yang turun temurun. Sebab, dalam pelaksanaan upacara ini, ada yang lebih penting; ada makna yang terkait erat dengan kepercayaan masyarakat.

Bagi sebagian orang, tradisi ini bisa jadi dinilai sebagai pemborosan. Sebab, demikian besar biaya yang harus dikeluarkan untuk penyelenggaraannya. Bahkan, ada yang sampai tertunda berbulan-bulan untuk mengumpulkan biaya pelaksanaan upacara ini; bahkan yang menyatakan, orang Toraja mencari kekayaan hanya untuk dihabiskan pada pesta kematian.

Pandangan lain menyatakan, sungguh berat acara itu dilaksanakan. Sebab, orang yang kedukaan justru harus mengeluarkan biaya besar untuk pesta. Untuk diketahui, hewan-hewan yang dikorbankan dalam upacara itu, ternyata bukan hanya dari kalangan keluarga yang meninggal, tetapi juga merupakan bantuan dari semua keluarga dan kerabat. Selain itu, hewan yang dikorbankan itu juga dibagi-bagikan, termasuk disumbangkan ke rumah-rumah ibadah. Pesta ini sesungguhnya menjadi simbol dari upaya melestarikan tradisi tolong-menolong dan gotong-royong.

Bagi masyarakat Toraja, berbicara pemakaman bukan hanya berbicara upacara, status, jumlah kerbau yang dipotong, tetapi juga soal malu (siri'). Makanya, upacara Rambu Solo juga terkait dengan tingkat stratifikasi sosial. Dulunya, pesta meriah hanya menjadi milik bangsawan kelas tinggi dalam masyarakat ini. Akan tetapi, sekarang mulai bergeser. Siapa yang kaya, itulah yang pestanya meriah.

Berbagi makanan adalah hal biasa. Olehnya itu, berkunjung ke rumah orang Toraja akan selalu diajak makan dan tidak boleh ditolak. Jika sudah makan dan kenyang, tetap ambil beberapa suap sebagai tanda persaudaraan dan penghormatan.

Menurut hukum adat Toraja, pewaris yang memberi terbanyak pada upacara pemakaman akan menerima bagian terbesar warisan, entah dia perempuan atau laki-laki.

Kepercayaan leluhur (aluk todolo) jiwa yang mati mengendarai jiwa kerbau dan babi yang dikorbankan. Makanya, hewan terbaik dan paling berharga adalah Tedong Bonga. Sebab, dengan bahu yang besar dan tanduk panjang yang kuat, bisa dikendarai bagi yang meninggal melintasi gunung dan lembah menuju alam baka (puya).

Orang Toraja percaya bahwa jiwa dari hewan korban akan mengikuti tuannya yang dikorbankan pada upacara pemakaman. Dipercaya pula, roh dari rumah dan semua milik yang meninggal akan mengikuti pemiliknya. Karenanya, sekalipun seseorang meninggal di tempat lain, keluarga berusaha membawanya kembali ke tempat asal untuk upacara pemakaman. (*)




Read More...... Naparampo : Pong Sean

Selasa, 19 Juli 2005


KEMATIAN bagi yang hidup adalah sebuah keniscayaan. Demikian juga bagi masyarakat Tana Toraja, Sulsel. Tapi, sebagai gerbang ke alam yang lain, masyarakat Tana Toraja punya tradisi sendiri bagi tiap kerabatnya yang meninggal; pesta adat Rambu Solo'.
DI balik pegunungan yang sulit terjangkau kendaraan, di atas lahan yang sedikit lapang, tampak berjejer rumah-rumah dari bambu. Modelnya sederhana. Bahkan, tidak berlebih bila dinyatakan tak layak ditinggali. Dalam Bahasa Toraja, rumah-rumah bambu itu dikenal dengan nama Lantang.

Rumah-rumah bambu itu dibuat bersambung. Sebuah rumah besar, tongkonan, sebagai rumah khas adat Toraja seolah menjadi pusat dari rumah-rumah bambu itu. Sebab, di kiri kanan rumah besar itulah, rumah-rumah bambu itu didirikan. Tiap sekat rumah bambu itu diberi nomor.

Pendirian rumah-rumah bambu itu merupakan pertanda akan dimulainya sebuah pesta adat dalam tradisi masyarakat Tana Toraja. Pesta adat atas meninggalnya kerabat. Pesta adat yang merupakan warisan tradisi para leluhur; upacara penguburan atau Rambu Solo'.

Dalam bahasa lain, Rambu Solo' juga kerap dimaknai sebagai pesta kematian. Akan tetapi, makna tentu bukan berpesta atas kematian kerabat, melainkan upacara mengantar kepergian kerabat yang telah berjasa dalam hidupnya.

Siang itu, Kamis 14 Juli 2005. Di daerah Kamiri, Sangalla, Tator, berlangsung pesta adat Rambu Solo atas kematian Helena Rambulangi dalam usia 95 tahun. Hampir semua perhatian masyarakat sekitar tertuju pada acara ini. Malah, ada yang datang khusus, termasuk para turis datang jauh-jauh, hanya untuk menyaksikan jalannya acara ini.

Bahkan, ada yang sudah mengikuti upacara ini sejak Sabtu, 9 Juli. Kamis siang itu, memang menjadi puncak upacara Rambu Solo; mengantar jenazah ke pemakaman. Sebelumnya, Sabtu 9 Juli, kerabat yang datang sudah diminta mengisi lantang yang tersedia, termasuk logistik yang dibutuhkan selama acara pemakaman.

Pada hari yang sama juga digelar Ma'karudusan. Dua ekor kerbau dikorbankan sebagai pertanda dimulainya acara pemakaman. Tidak berselang lama, fase Ma'pasa' Tedong juga digelar. Semua kerbau yang telah disepakati keluarga untuk dikorbankan dikumpulkan di halaman Tongkonan tempat pesemayaman yang meninggal. Kerbau diarak berkeliling bala'kaan sebanyak tiga kali.

Keesokan harinya, secara berturut-turut dilakukan pemindahan jenazah dari Tongkonan ke Lumbung. Tiba saat Ma'pasonglo', jenazah dipindahkan dari Lumbung ke Lakkian yang berada di lokasi tempat pemakaman, setelah dilakukan ibadah. Pemindahan dilakukan dengan arak-arakan.

Hari berikutnya, keluarga yang berduka menerima kunjungan dari kerabat dan tamu lain yang menyampaikan turut berduka cita. Biasanya berlangsung selama dua hari.

Tamu dan kerabat yang datang lebih dulu mendaftar pada pos penerimaan tamu. Saat itu, tamu juga mendaftarkan hewan atau benda yang dibawanya untuk dicatat panitia. Pendaftaran ini terkait dengan pajak yang harus dibayar yang bagi masyarakat Toraja sudah menjadi salah satu sumber PAD terbesar.

Tamu yang sudah mendaftar lalu masuk ke lokasi Katongkonan secara bergiliran. Para tamu diterima secara resmi oleh keluarga dan dijamu minum kopi, teh, atau pangan. Sesudah dijamu, tamu menuju Lantang masing-masing untuk makan dan istirahat. Selanjutnya, rombongan tamu lainnya akan diterima secara resmi.

Puncak acara adalah mengarak jenazah menuju pemakaman. Semua kerbau yang sudah disepakati dikorbankan harus potong dan dagingnya dibagi-bagikan secara adat sesuai peruntukannya.

APA yang dilakukan dalam pesta Rambu Solo' sesungguhnya hanyalah sebuah simbol. Simbol dari sebuah tradisi yang turun temurun. Sebab, dalam pelaksanaan upacara ini, ada yang lebih penting; ada makna yang terkait erat dengan kepercayaan masyarakat.

Bagi sebagian orang, tradisi ini bisa jadi dinilai sebagai pemborosan. Sebab, demikian besar biaya yang harus dikeluarkan untuk penyelenggaraannya. Bahkan, ada yang sampai tertunda berbulan-bulan untuk mengumpulkan biaya pelaksanaan upacara ini; bahkan yang menyatakan, orang Toraja mencari kekayaan hanya untuk dihabiskan pada pesta kematian.

Pandangan lain menyatakan, sungguh berat acara itu dilaksanakan. Sebab, orang yang kedukaan justru harus mengeluarkan biaya besar untuk pesta. Untuk diketahui, hewan-hewan yang dikorbankan dalam upacara itu, ternyata bukan hanya dari kalangan keluarga yang meninggal, tetapi juga merupakan bantuan dari semua keluarga dan kerabat. Selain itu, hewan yang dikorbankan itu juga dibagi-bagikan, termasuk disumbangkan ke rumah-rumah ibadah. Pesta ini sesungguhnya menjadi simbol dari upaya melestarikan tradisi tolong-menolong dan gotong-royong.

Bagi masyarakat Toraja, berbicara pemakaman bukan hanya berbicara upacara, status, jumlah kerbau yang dipotong, tetapi juga soal malu (siri'). Makanya, upacara Rambu Solo juga terkait dengan tingkat stratifikasi sosial. Dulunya, pesta meriah hanya menjadi milik bangsawan kelas tinggi dalam masyarakat ini. Akan tetapi, sekarang mulai bergeser. Siapa yang kaya, itulah yang pestanya meriah.

Berbagi makanan adalah hal biasa. Olehnya itu, berkunjung ke rumah orang Toraja akan selalu diajak makan dan tidak boleh ditolak. Jika sudah makan dan kenyang, tetap ambil beberapa suap sebagai tanda persaudaraan dan penghormatan.

Menurut hukum adat Toraja, pewaris yang memberi terbanyak pada upacara pemakaman akan menerima bagian terbesar warisan, entah dia perempuan atau laki-laki.

Kepercayaan leluhur (aluk todolo) jiwa yang mati mengendarai jiwa kerbau dan babi yang dikorbankan. Makanya, hewan terbaik dan paling berharga adalah Tedong Bonga. Sebab, dengan bahu yang besar dan tanduk panjang yang kuat, bisa dikendarai bagi yang meninggal melintasi gunung dan lembah menuju alam baka (puya).

Orang Toraja percaya bahwa jiwa dari hewan korban akan mengikuti tuannya yang dikorbankan pada upacara pemakaman. Dipercaya pula, roh dari rumah dan semua milik yang meninggal akan mengikuti pemiliknya. Karenanya, sekalipun seseorang meninggal di tempat lain, keluarga berusaha membawanya kembali ke tempat asal untuk upacara pemakaman. (*)




Tana Toraja: South Sulawesi

by Jennifer Bennett



Let’s get this out of the way first: Tana Toraja is not a suitable holiday destination for any of the following: committed vegetarians, animal rights activists, or anyone with a pressing sense of their own mortality. But if you like your meat, don’t get squeamish at the sight of trussed-up pigs on their way to slaughter, and have no problems with a few skeletons, then the green hills of South Sulawesi are for you. The elegant tongkonan houses that sit like boats on a green sea play a central role in Torajan culture. They can neither be bought nor sold (although apparently they can be dismantled and sold in pieces to those wanting to take home a souvenir.

Newly carved and painted house panels can be found for around Rp 50,000 all over the place, but for an authentic piece of Toraja, keep an eye out for sales of old houses, with weathered panels going for around Rp 200,000) and generally last for a century or two.

Their peaked roofs represent the boats the Torajans believe their ancestors sailed up the river when they arrived, but they also bring to mind the buffaloes that are so important to the local economy and culture.

The houses are covered in carvings representing social status and the local belief system, while a family’s importance can also be measured by the number of buffalo horns hanging from the front of the house. The more horns, the more funerals.

The Torajans are obsessed with death, but in a cheerful way. The most important thing in a Torajan’s life is saving enough money and having enough children to ensure their funeral is the best party in town.

Tourists are welcome at Torajan funerals — you’re just another guest, although don’t wear black unless you’re a close member of the family, and avoid the color red. Provided you visit at the right time of year — from June to October — you should have little problem finding a funeral to attend.

Funerals are often held years after death, the body having spent the intervening time lying in state beneath the family home. The family uses the time to save for the big day, which will be a huge affair, involving hundreds of guests who will bring dozens of buffalo and pigs, all destined to be slaughtered and eaten that afternoon.

Most Torajans are Christians, converted by Dutch missionaries early last century. Before that the dominant faith was a form of animism, remnants of which can still be seen in the funerals and graves, and which is still practiced by a small group of people.
White churches dot the countryside, along with house graves, graves cut into boulders and hanging graves complete with effigies of the dead.

Torajans are rarely buried in the ground. Instead, they are placed in hanging graves, where coffins have been suspended high in the air on the side of a cliff, as well as deep tombs cut into the rock and natural cave graves. Displayed along with them are effigies of the dead, known as tau tau.

The cave grave of Tampangallo, accessible along a path through quiet rice paddies, is probably the best and most easily accessible of its type. The tau tau are gathered in low balconies looking down on their slowly rotting coffins and the bleached bones of the dead.

But rather than being spooky, the atmosphere is more that of a going-away party, with the dead about to board their boats to the afterlife.

The cliff graves of Lemo and Londa are surrounded by rice fields of such a bright green that during the day the color is almost blinding. Buffalo wallow in mud pools while small children hunt for tiny fish as their parents check the crops and pick vegetables. At Londa, coffins are suspended from rocky overhangs, while at Lemo, the dead look out over the fields.

But the smallest of the Torajan graves are also the most touching. “Baby Trees” are the resting places of children who died before they started teething. While only those who follow the traditional religion still use them, they are looked after by all Torajans and are regarded as an important part of the old ways.
Once a child dies, the mother must bring it to the tree, in which she will cut a hole and place the child inside. As the tree heals itself it absorbs the body of the child. Many trees have been used for decades, and it is possible to see the small scars that indicate a long-ago grave.

Most of Toraja’s main sights are within a half-hour drive from the town of Rantepao, which has a wide range of hotels, most of which have hot water, something of a necessity this high up, as the nights can be chilly. Few hotels have air conditioning, and it’s not really needed.

We stayed at the Wisma Monton (twin room with bathroom Rp 125,000 a night, including breakfast, Jl. Abdul Gani 14A, ph. 062 423 21675), which has fantastic views looking out over the surrounding mountains and a quiet rooftop restaurant.

As mentioned earlier, Toraja is not the best place for vegetarians. Buffalo satay is a common dish, and most menus feature a wide range of Indonesian foods with a few western standards thrown in. Traditional bamboo-cooked dishes (pork, carp or chicken with steamed vegetables) are also available at most restaurants, although they need to be ordered two and half hours in advance.

Also worth trying are the local carp, which are raised in ponds in the middle of rice paddies. Restoran Mambu and Mart’s Caf‚ (both on Jl. Sam Ratulangi) have almost identical menus and serve cold beer.

While there is public transport in the form of bemo, hiring a driver (Rp 400,000 - Rp 500,000 a day, including petrol and lunch for the driver) is a good idea, as you’ll save a lot of time and many of the roads are in poor condition. Most funerals are held at people’s homes, so public transportation may only take you to the bottom of a very steep, very rocky hill.

A guide (Rp 200,000 a day) is also indispensable, as they will be able to plan a decent itinerary for you, explain the history and often confusing culture, and are your best way to see a funeral.
It is possible to arrange all of this on arrival at Makassar airport, where you will be instantly pounced upon by what seems like every tour operator in the area. Our advice: sit down at one of the cafes at the airport, have a coffee, and then go speak to the people who didn’t bother you.

We ended up dealing with the nice people at Petro Tours, who arranged tickets on the air-conditioned executive bus to Toraja (Rp 70,000 — includes more leg room than some business-class flights and will drop you at your hotel), a driver for two days, entry fees to cultural sites and funerals (most sites charge about Rp 10,000 each).

While there is no charge for attending a funeral, guests should bring a present — usually, it must be said, a carton of cigarettes. Our guide, the fantastic Yoseph Nasaret (0813 423 97528), who cannot be recommended highly enough.

After two days of funerals and graves, graves, graves, he took us on a seven-kilometer walk through rice paddies and villages, pausing for a fantastic lunch at a restaurant overlooking the valley. He has an in-depth knowledge of the area and its history and speaks excellent English.

Visitors to Toraja should also bring presents for the children you’ll meet in the countryside. Sweets are to be avoided but brightly colored markers go down very well with the under-12 population.



Read More...... by Jennifer Bennett



Let’s get this out of the way first: Tana Toraja is not a suitable holiday destination for any of the following: committed vegetarians, animal rights activists, or anyone with a pressing sense of their own mortality. But if you like your meat, don’t get squeamish at the sight of trussed-up pigs on their way to slaughter, and have no problems with a few skeletons, then the green hills of South Sulawesi are for you. The elegant tongkonan houses that sit like boats on a green sea play a central role in Torajan culture. They can neither be bought nor sold (although apparently they can be dismantled and sold in pieces to those wanting to take home a souvenir.

Newly carved and painted house panels can be found for around Rp 50,000 all over the place, but for an authentic piece of Toraja, keep an eye out for sales of old houses, with weathered panels going for around Rp 200,000) and generally last for a century or two.

Their peaked roofs represent the boats the Torajans believe their ancestors sailed up the river when they arrived, but they also bring to mind the buffaloes that are so important to the local economy and culture.

The houses are covered in carvings representing social status and the local belief system, while a family’s importance can also be measured by the number of buffalo horns hanging from the front of the house. The more horns, the more funerals.

The Torajans are obsessed with death, but in a cheerful way. The most important thing in a Torajan’s life is saving enough money and having enough children to ensure their funeral is the best party in town.

Tourists are welcome at Torajan funerals — you’re just another guest, although don’t wear black unless you’re a close member of the family, and avoid the color red. Provided you visit at the right time of year — from June to October — you should have little problem finding a funeral to attend.

Funerals are often held years after death, the body having spent the intervening time lying in state beneath the family home. The family uses the time to save for the big day, which will be a huge affair, involving hundreds of guests who will bring dozens of buffalo and pigs, all destined to be slaughtered and eaten that afternoon.

Most Torajans are Christians, converted by Dutch missionaries early last century. Before that the dominant faith was a form of animism, remnants of which can still be seen in the funerals and graves, and which is still practiced by a small group of people.
White churches dot the countryside, along with house graves, graves cut into boulders and hanging graves complete with effigies of the dead.

Torajans are rarely buried in the ground. Instead, they are placed in hanging graves, where coffins have been suspended high in the air on the side of a cliff, as well as deep tombs cut into the rock and natural cave graves. Displayed along with them are effigies of the dead, known as tau tau.

The cave grave of Tampangallo, accessible along a path through quiet rice paddies, is probably the best and most easily accessible of its type. The tau tau are gathered in low balconies looking down on their slowly rotting coffins and the bleached bones of the dead.

But rather than being spooky, the atmosphere is more that of a going-away party, with the dead about to board their boats to the afterlife.

The cliff graves of Lemo and Londa are surrounded by rice fields of such a bright green that during the day the color is almost blinding. Buffalo wallow in mud pools while small children hunt for tiny fish as their parents check the crops and pick vegetables. At Londa, coffins are suspended from rocky overhangs, while at Lemo, the dead look out over the fields.

But the smallest of the Torajan graves are also the most touching. “Baby Trees” are the resting places of children who died before they started teething. While only those who follow the traditional religion still use them, they are looked after by all Torajans and are regarded as an important part of the old ways.
Once a child dies, the mother must bring it to the tree, in which she will cut a hole and place the child inside. As the tree heals itself it absorbs the body of the child. Many trees have been used for decades, and it is possible to see the small scars that indicate a long-ago grave.

Most of Toraja’s main sights are within a half-hour drive from the town of Rantepao, which has a wide range of hotels, most of which have hot water, something of a necessity this high up, as the nights can be chilly. Few hotels have air conditioning, and it’s not really needed.

We stayed at the Wisma Monton (twin room with bathroom Rp 125,000 a night, including breakfast, Jl. Abdul Gani 14A, ph. 062 423 21675), which has fantastic views looking out over the surrounding mountains and a quiet rooftop restaurant.

As mentioned earlier, Toraja is not the best place for vegetarians. Buffalo satay is a common dish, and most menus feature a wide range of Indonesian foods with a few western standards thrown in. Traditional bamboo-cooked dishes (pork, carp or chicken with steamed vegetables) are also available at most restaurants, although they need to be ordered two and half hours in advance.

Also worth trying are the local carp, which are raised in ponds in the middle of rice paddies. Restoran Mambu and Mart’s Caf‚ (both on Jl. Sam Ratulangi) have almost identical menus and serve cold beer.

While there is public transport in the form of bemo, hiring a driver (Rp 400,000 - Rp 500,000 a day, including petrol and lunch for the driver) is a good idea, as you’ll save a lot of time and many of the roads are in poor condition. Most funerals are held at people’s homes, so public transportation may only take you to the bottom of a very steep, very rocky hill.

A guide (Rp 200,000 a day) is also indispensable, as they will be able to plan a decent itinerary for you, explain the history and often confusing culture, and are your best way to see a funeral.
It is possible to arrange all of this on arrival at Makassar airport, where you will be instantly pounced upon by what seems like every tour operator in the area. Our advice: sit down at one of the cafes at the airport, have a coffee, and then go speak to the people who didn’t bother you.

We ended up dealing with the nice people at Petro Tours, who arranged tickets on the air-conditioned executive bus to Toraja (Rp 70,000 — includes more leg room than some business-class flights and will drop you at your hotel), a driver for two days, entry fees to cultural sites and funerals (most sites charge about Rp 10,000 each).

While there is no charge for attending a funeral, guests should bring a present — usually, it must be said, a carton of cigarettes. Our guide, the fantastic Yoseph Nasaret (0813 423 97528), who cannot be recommended highly enough.

After two days of funerals and graves, graves, graves, he took us on a seven-kilometer walk through rice paddies and villages, pausing for a fantastic lunch at a restaurant overlooking the valley. He has an in-depth knowledge of the area and its history and speaks excellent English.

Visitors to Toraja should also bring presents for the children you’ll meet in the countryside. Sweets are to be avoided but brightly colored markers go down very well with the under-12 population.



Tana Toraja, South Sulawesi-Land of The Heavenly Kings

by www.my-indonesia.info

The road from Makassar or Ujung Pandand to Toraja runs along the coast for about 130 km's and then hits the mountains. After the entrance to Tana Toraja you enter a majestic landscape with giant gray, granites and stones and blue mountains at a distance after passing the market village of Mebali. They form a sharp contrast with the lively green of the fertile, rain-fed terraces and the rusty read of the tropical laterite soil. This is Tana Toraja, one of the most splendid areas in Indonesia.

Tana Toraja has a specific and unique funeral ceremony which is called Rambu Solo. In Tana Toraja, dead body is not buried, but it is put in Tongkonan for several times, even can be more than ten years until the family have enough money to held the ceremony. After ceremony, the dead body is brought to the cave or to the wall of the mountain. The skulls show us that the dead body is not buried but just put on stone or ground, or put in the hole.The funeral festival season begins when the last rice has been harvested, usually in late June or July, and lasts through to September.





By Air
Directly from Hasanuddin airport, Makassar or Ujung Pandang, proceed to TANA TORAJA through the airport of Rantetayo, near Makle, 24 km south of Rantepao and there is a bus service to town.
By Land


Buses to Rantepao from Ujung Pandang leave daily from Ujung Pandang. The journey takes 8 hours and includes a meal stop. Tickets should be bought in town but coaches actually leave from Panaikan bus terminal, 20 minutes out of town by bemo. Coaches typically leave in the morning ( 7 am ), noon ( 1 pm ) and at night ( 7 pm).
Several companies in Rantepao run buses back to Ujung Pandang with the departure time and prices. The number of buses each day depends on the number of passengers.


Tourist who wants to stay in the heart of the city has many choices since there is lot of hotels available. Or if you had an adventurous soul, you can sleep in villages on the way.




Bemo is the best way to get to know the locals, besides chartered vehicles (minibuses and Jeeps) with or without driver. While you are in the village you can take a walk to move around.



Exploring the market; You should not to be missed going to the traditional market. Here you can get the top end of Toraja coffee beans [like Robusta and Arabica]. And several local veggies, fruits Tamarella or Terong Belanda and gold fish [ikan mas].
Visit Batu Tumonga Plateu; It means stone that facing to the sky. From here can be seen many volcanic stones comes up in between padi fields. And, several giant stones became cave graveyard. The views is pretty awesome. The huge of Tana Toraja [Toraja land] looks so lush and greenery. Like a patchwork in gradation hue of green color
Palawa is an excellent village to visit a Tongkonan, or a burial place still swarming with celebrations and festivals.
Take a side trip from Rantepao to Kete, a traditional village with excellent handicraft shops. Behind the village on a hillside is a grave site with lifesize statues guarding over old coffins


Most of the times, you can't eat at these locations; however more warung and restaurants appear along the road. You can also bring your own foods and drinks.



There is a souvenirs shop where you can buy everything specific from Tana Toraja. There are clothes, bags, wallets and other handicrafts.



Visitor are expected to adhere to local dress customs and to bring a token present, such as cigarettes or coffee whenever entered Tongkonan.
As roads are not always paved, it is necessary to use a jeep or walk, even when the weather is good (between May and October).
Beware with your head whenever going inside to Tongkonan, The Torajan traditional house.
Enrekang, Makale and Toraja Higland are surrounded by astonishing volcanic rocky cliffs. Do not miss it , just stop and take picture for awhile and you will not regret.



Read More...... by www.my-indonesia.info

The road from Makassar or Ujung Pandand to Toraja runs along the coast for about 130 km's and then hits the mountains. After the entrance to Tana Toraja you enter a majestic landscape with giant gray, granites and stones and blue mountains at a distance after passing the market village of Mebali. They form a sharp contrast with the lively green of the fertile, rain-fed terraces and the rusty read of the tropical laterite soil. This is Tana Toraja, one of the most splendid areas in Indonesia.

Tana Toraja has a specific and unique funeral ceremony which is called Rambu Solo. In Tana Toraja, dead body is not buried, but it is put in Tongkonan for several times, even can be more than ten years until the family have enough money to held the ceremony. After ceremony, the dead body is brought to the cave or to the wall of the mountain. The skulls show us that the dead body is not buried but just put on stone or ground, or put in the hole.The funeral festival season begins when the last rice has been harvested, usually in late June or July, and lasts through to September.





By Air
Directly from Hasanuddin airport, Makassar or Ujung Pandang, proceed to TANA TORAJA through the airport of Rantetayo, near Makle, 24 km south of Rantepao and there is a bus service to town.
By Land


Buses to Rantepao from Ujung Pandang leave daily from Ujung Pandang. The journey takes 8 hours and includes a meal stop. Tickets should be bought in town but coaches actually leave from Panaikan bus terminal, 20 minutes out of town by bemo. Coaches typically leave in the morning ( 7 am ), noon ( 1 pm ) and at night ( 7 pm).
Several companies in Rantepao run buses back to Ujung Pandang with the departure time and prices. The number of buses each day depends on the number of passengers.


Tourist who wants to stay in the heart of the city has many choices since there is lot of hotels available. Or if you had an adventurous soul, you can sleep in villages on the way.




Bemo is the best way to get to know the locals, besides chartered vehicles (minibuses and Jeeps) with or without driver. While you are in the village you can take a walk to move around.



Exploring the market; You should not to be missed going to the traditional market. Here you can get the top end of Toraja coffee beans [like Robusta and Arabica]. And several local veggies, fruits Tamarella or Terong Belanda and gold fish [ikan mas].
Visit Batu Tumonga Plateu; It means stone that facing to the sky. From here can be seen many volcanic stones comes up in between padi fields. And, several giant stones became cave graveyard. The views is pretty awesome. The huge of Tana Toraja [Toraja land] looks so lush and greenery. Like a patchwork in gradation hue of green color
Palawa is an excellent village to visit a Tongkonan, or a burial place still swarming with celebrations and festivals.
Take a side trip from Rantepao to Kete, a traditional village with excellent handicraft shops. Behind the village on a hillside is a grave site with lifesize statues guarding over old coffins


Most of the times, you can't eat at these locations; however more warung and restaurants appear along the road. You can also bring your own foods and drinks.



There is a souvenirs shop where you can buy everything specific from Tana Toraja. There are clothes, bags, wallets and other handicrafts.



Visitor are expected to adhere to local dress customs and to bring a token present, such as cigarettes or coffee whenever entered Tongkonan.
As roads are not always paved, it is necessary to use a jeep or walk, even when the weather is good (between May and October).
Beware with your head whenever going inside to Tongkonan, The Torajan traditional house.
Enrekang, Makale and Toraja Higland are surrounded by astonishing volcanic rocky cliffs. Do not miss it , just stop and take picture for awhile and you will not regret.



Kamis, 24 Juli 2008

Meet the Sa'dan Toraja

POSTED BY TANA TORAJA NETWORK AT 11:39 AM



Toraja, once daily in the newspapers and travel magazines of the world seems nearly forgotten nowadays. So we noticed happily, that PATRICIA CHARGOT article about Torajan's have been published lately in some American publications. The article, based on information's provided by Kathleen Adams, associate professor of anthropology, Loyola University Chicago summarises in short what Toraja and the Trojans are all about. Therefore we reprint it here in full length and add some sketches from Randy Boegis, a Bugis from central Sulawesi who has made Toraja his second home.

Man from Sesean by Randy Boegis

WHO ARE THEY? The Sa'dan Toraja (SAH-dan tor-ah-jah) are one of the many ethnic groups in Indonesia, an island-nation in Southeast Asia. For centuries, the Toraja were unknown to most tourists. But in the early 1980s, tourists began visiting. Since then, more than a million foreigners and other Indonesians have been awed by the Toraja's fancifully carved ancestral homes, rice barns and cliff statues, and their colorful, pageant-filled funeral celebrations.

HOW MANY TORAJA ARE THERE? About 338,000. Most live in Tana Toraja Regency, the Toraja's mountain homeland in central Sulawesi, one of Indonesia's largest islands. But more and more young people are leaving to work or attend college in other parts of Indonesia and even other countries.

HOW DO YOU GET TO TANA TORAJA? It's about a 10-hour bus trip from Makassar, a bustling port city. The bus hugs the coast for a while, then turns inland, winding into the mountains and following the Sa'dan River. The road narrows until it barely clings to the cliff as you gaze down into deep ravines. You climb to a pine forest, then descend into Tana Toraja, a series of lush valleys carpeted with terraced rice paddies, water buffalo, bamboo groves, and coffee and clove plantations.

WHAT'S LIFE LIKE? Terrorist attacks in the United States in 2001 and in Indonesia in 2002 have taken their toll. In the main town of Rantepao, many hotels, tourist shops and Internet cafes have closed. Many guides and trinket carvers have lost their livelihoods. The losses have been felt less keenly in the Toraja's hundreds of small villages.

Girl from the mountains by Randy Boegis

ARE ALL THE VILLAGES ALIKE? Not to the Toraja, who are proud of their diversity. As they say, "Each village has its own ritual, each has its way of tearing the banana leaf."

ARE THE TORAJA MUSLIMS? No. For centuries, they had their own traditional religion, Aluk to Dolo, which means Way of the Ancestors. But in 1913, Dutch missionaries arrived and today the Toraja are one of the few Christian groups in Muslim-dominated Indonesia. More than 80 percent of the people are Christian, though Aluk still plays an important role in funerals and other rituals.

WHAT IS A TONGKONAN? A tongkonan (tong-KOH-nan) is a Toraja ancestral house. It's a big part of a family's identity, the place where all the generations gather for weddings, funerals and other ceremonies. The tongkonan tells the family's story and belongs to everyone who can trace his or her genealogy to its founder. Some of the most prestigious, "mother" tongkonans are believed to have been founded by celestial beings. But younger, "child" tongkonans are deeply cherished, too. Most Toraja also strongly identify with the "big tongkonan" - the Christian church.

WHAT DO THE TORAJA EAT? A typical meal would be two huge bowls of rice, a few spoonfuls of ferns, papaya leaves or other spinach-like greens, and a piece or pork or chicken. The meat and veggies are stuffed inside a long bamboo tube and roasted on an open fire. Savory pancakes and peanuts are favorite treats.

Young Girl by Randy Boegis

WHAT DO THEY WEAR? The Toraja like to wear a plaid sarong, or long tube of cloth, over their shorts, skirts and dresses. Normally, it's bunched and knotted at the waist. But at night, you can pull it up to your neck to keep warm and even sleep in it.

Images from Randy Boegis, currently in display at the Ladybamboo Villa in Ubud, Bali.


Read More...... POSTED BY TANA TORAJA NETWORK AT 11:39 AM



Toraja, once daily in the newspapers and travel magazines of the world seems nearly forgotten nowadays. So we noticed happily, that PATRICIA CHARGOT article about Torajan's have been published lately in some American publications. The article, based on information's provided by Kathleen Adams, associate professor of anthropology, Loyola University Chicago summarises in short what Toraja and the Trojans are all about. Therefore we reprint it here in full length and add some sketches from Randy Boegis, a Bugis from central Sulawesi who has made Toraja his second home.

Man from Sesean by Randy Boegis

WHO ARE THEY? The Sa'dan Toraja (SAH-dan tor-ah-jah) are one of the many ethnic groups in Indonesia, an island-nation in Southeast Asia. For centuries, the Toraja were unknown to most tourists. But in the early 1980s, tourists began visiting. Since then, more than a million foreigners and other Indonesians have been awed by the Toraja's fancifully carved ancestral homes, rice barns and cliff statues, and their colorful, pageant-filled funeral celebrations.

HOW MANY TORAJA ARE THERE? About 338,000. Most live in Tana Toraja Regency, the Toraja's mountain homeland in central Sulawesi, one of Indonesia's largest islands. But more and more young people are leaving to work or attend college in other parts of Indonesia and even other countries.

HOW DO YOU GET TO TANA TORAJA? It's about a 10-hour bus trip from Makassar, a bustling port city. The bus hugs the coast for a while, then turns inland, winding into the mountains and following the Sa'dan River. The road narrows until it barely clings to the cliff as you gaze down into deep ravines. You climb to a pine forest, then descend into Tana Toraja, a series of lush valleys carpeted with terraced rice paddies, water buffalo, bamboo groves, and coffee and clove plantations.

WHAT'S LIFE LIKE? Terrorist attacks in the United States in 2001 and in Indonesia in 2002 have taken their toll. In the main town of Rantepao, many hotels, tourist shops and Internet cafes have closed. Many guides and trinket carvers have lost their livelihoods. The losses have been felt less keenly in the Toraja's hundreds of small villages.

Girl from the mountains by Randy Boegis

ARE ALL THE VILLAGES ALIKE? Not to the Toraja, who are proud of their diversity. As they say, "Each village has its own ritual, each has its way of tearing the banana leaf."

ARE THE TORAJA MUSLIMS? No. For centuries, they had their own traditional religion, Aluk to Dolo, which means Way of the Ancestors. But in 1913, Dutch missionaries arrived and today the Toraja are one of the few Christian groups in Muslim-dominated Indonesia. More than 80 percent of the people are Christian, though Aluk still plays an important role in funerals and other rituals.

WHAT IS A TONGKONAN? A tongkonan (tong-KOH-nan) is a Toraja ancestral house. It's a big part of a family's identity, the place where all the generations gather for weddings, funerals and other ceremonies. The tongkonan tells the family's story and belongs to everyone who can trace his or her genealogy to its founder. Some of the most prestigious, "mother" tongkonans are believed to have been founded by celestial beings. But younger, "child" tongkonans are deeply cherished, too. Most Toraja also strongly identify with the "big tongkonan" - the Christian church.

WHAT DO THE TORAJA EAT? A typical meal would be two huge bowls of rice, a few spoonfuls of ferns, papaya leaves or other spinach-like greens, and a piece or pork or chicken. The meat and veggies are stuffed inside a long bamboo tube and roasted on an open fire. Savory pancakes and peanuts are favorite treats.

Young Girl by Randy Boegis

WHAT DO THEY WEAR? The Toraja like to wear a plaid sarong, or long tube of cloth, over their shorts, skirts and dresses. Normally, it's bunched and knotted at the waist. But at night, you can pull it up to your neck to keep warm and even sleep in it.

Images from Randy Boegis, currently in display at the Ladybamboo Villa in Ubud, Bali.


Selasa, 22 Juli 2008

Toraja: The Burial that Can Ruin You - An amazing ritual

By: Stefan Anitei, Science Editor



Indonesia makes the world's largest archipelago, with 17,000 islands. One of its largest islands is Sulawesi (Celebes), which is like a bridge between Australia and Asia. A particular universe in Sulawesi is represented by Tana Toraja ("the Land of the Highlanders"), in the southern part of the island, dominated by the Rante-Kombola peak, 3,455 m (11,516 ft) tall.

The Toraja people consider that the soul is the most important notion and their religion is connected to one of the most spectacular burial rituals in the world, aimed to save the soul of the deceased, easing its way to the other world, that of the gods and spirits of the ancestors.

Toraja myths say that Rante-Kombola is the place the first people descended from on a stone ladder. Soon, the gods broke it, and the rocks of Bamba Puang are just remains of the sky ladder.

In 1905, Dutch troops defeated the resistance of the Toraja warriors, after one year of fights. The courage of the famous and fierce head-hunter Toraja warriors could do nothing against the modern weaponry as they used spears, swords, shields or threw pepper towards the Dutch soldiers. The Dutch army was soon followed by missionaries of the Reformed Church, with the aim of converting the locals to Christianity and forbid the older customs and traditions.

The Dutch were especially worried with how whole families got ruined by the funerary ceremonies asked by dluk, the ancestral religion. The violent revolt of 1917 showed the church that tactics had to be changed and the conversion methods had to be more subtle. With all the efforts, during the colonial period, just 10 % of the Toraja shifted for Christian religion. Paradoxically, a massive conversion occurred after Indonesia achieved its independence in 1965, to reach 86 % in 1980.

The two-souled people

Today, only few Toraja people follow the ancestral animist beliefs. For them, the world has three levels. The sky is the upper level, ruled by the supreme god Puang Matua, the creator of the people, animals and plants. The land is the intermediary level. The underground is the domain of the spirits, darkness and death.

Two other spheres influence the domain of the people. One is located in the southwest, being populated by the spirits of the ancestors, and the other in the northeast, belonging to the already deified ancestors.

The Toraja tradition says the people have 2 souls. The first is dewata, the divine soul, which leaves us when we die and ascends to Puang Matua, entering in its service, being put to watch at the compliance of the traditional religion canons, the way of the ancestors called "aluk to dolo".

The second soul is "bombo", the wandering soul of the dead, the terrestrial and human side. It splits in two, one remaining in the tomb with the dead, and the other hanging around. To reach Puya, the kingdom of the dead, where they will keep on existing, the souls must bypass many obstacles, fact that turns possible only owing to the support of the close relatives, which will accomplish rigorously a whole array of rites, grouped in several stages.

From his death to the first ceremony, the man is considered ill and lain on the floor of the house, with the head to the west and feet to the east. Then, the body is prepared: it is washed, the intestines are emptied and it is anointed with palm oil, after which it is wrapped in stripes of white fabric. The relatives cry loudly, but nobody pronounces the word "dead".

The start of the ceremony

The first ceremony starts immediately or after a while – sometimes weeks, months, up to one year, until all the necessary stuffs are gathered. It starts through animal sacrifices. First, buffaloes (kerabau), whose number varies depending on the caste of the dead, are sacrificed. In the case of the nobles, their number can be of 60-100. These massacres can ruin families. Dutch authorities tried to limit the number of the killed buffaloes to at most 40 and they also forbid one of the cruelest phases of the sacrifice, when the animals, still alive, were cut into pieces. The Indonesian government also limited drastically the number of sacrificed animals, imposing a high fee for each killed buffalo.

Only after the kill of the first buffalo, the person is considered dead. On the back of the second sacrificed buffalo, the soul of the dead leaves the village. The sacred animal of the Toraja accompanies them into the world of the spirits.

At the end of the ceremony, the horns of the sacrificed buffaloes will be stringed on a pole in front of the house, the one supporting the roof, as a proof of the social status of the dead. Then, the alimentary mourning starts, when rice consume is forbidden, and the wake, with the pray reciting, songs and circle dances, the people holding each other’s little fingers. This is Ma'Badong.

Relatives and friends start bringing offerings: buffaloes, pigs and rice. The flags of the deceased are raised in front of the house. The body is again wrapped in fabrics, taking the look of a large roll, due to the repeated coverings. Near the dead, a man carefully registers into a notebook each offering and its traits: the shape of the horns of the buffalo, its coat spots and so on. The quantity and quality of the offerings decide the inheritance share! Even the debts of the dead are inherited. But sometimes, the expense of the burial, together with the debts, may overmatch the value of the inheritance.

Megaliths on the sacred plain

The sacrifice of the pigs is devoid of pomp and spectators. Knives pierce their hearts. Their death is necessary as the ceremonies require meat. The festivity and the dead move to the plain, Ranta, the sacred field of the aligned megaliths. These menhirs have the weirdest shapes: square, circular, puckered or prolonged. Each stone is a commemorative monument, proof of a mortuary festivity. Some menhirs are taller than 6 m (20 ft) and can reach 8 tonnes. Others are small, of 20-30 cm (0.6-1 ft). Then, the dead is brought back to his home.

The second ceremony


Enlarge pictureThe next funerary ceremony takes place 9 days after the first one, or later – several months or several years (up to 20!), the deadline for the relatives to save the funds necessary for the festivity. The dead remains all this time inside the house, his body has not touched the tomb, and his soul is still searching for its way...

The same rites are restarted. The festivity amplifies. The dead is put out of the house in a coffin that must not touch the ground, being carried on a hearse resembling a Toraja house. He is carried through the fields and rice paddies, in the sounds of the gong, in the vast field of Ma'Palolo. A long line of mourning people follow him. The buffaloes and the other animals to be sacrificed finish the cortege.

The coffin is placed among the menhirs, in a previously prepared platform. Around the sacred field, a village of huts has been built, for hosting the hundreds of guests. Buffaloes and pigs are sacrificed again, and the meat is shared between the guests. At the shadow of the trees, people eat and drink palm wine. Prays are recited. Ma'maraka is sung by vocalists; their words attempt to comfort the family, expressing, at the same time, the support of the community.

The last ceremony

It takes place in the day called "towards the tomb". The dead will leave the field of menhirs. The coffin, located on the hearse, is carried on the shoulders of the men. After years of wandering, this is the last journey. The procession, accompanied by singing, reaches the funerary promenade. It is a large calcareous rock, in which liangs, the sepulchers of the families, are carved. A large ladder made of a tall bamboo stem with notches, will allow the ascend of the coffin to the liang. It is a difficult action, which requires skill and maxim effort. People go home. 30 days later, the relatives renounce to the mourning clothes. The soul of the dead has reached the kingdom of the spirits, watching for the wellbeing of the relatives and friends.

The funerary promenade

The entrance into the liang is covered by a richly decorated wooden plate. Under the window of the liang, a horned buffalo head is figured. Amongst the liangs, there are lodges hosting Tau-tau nangka ("small characters"), effigy dummies, representations of the dead, made of the wood of the breadfruit tree (Artocarpus) and dressed in fabrics. They lean carelessly on the wood bar keeping them prisoners in the narrow space of their balconies. The dummies differ in facial expressions, clothing and size; the clothes are bleached by sun and rain. Some wear cigarettes in their mouths or imitate life postures, like tiredness.

Men wear a type of turban or hats, whiter shirts, and over the shirt, a jacket or tog. On the right shoulder, there is a sarong. The lower body is covered by trousers or a long skirt. The necks are adorned with traditional collars or talismans made of pig teeth. Women wear a black fabric around their heads and simple blouses.

Tau-tau nangka are sought today by many museums and collectors, and because of the massive thefts, many Toraja hid their dummies in caves or guard the lodges, which are closed with lattices, shutters and latches and only shown to group of tourists.

A different type of tombs

Other tombs are located in natural grottoes, at tens of meters from their entrance, where the fabric rolls with the decomposed bodies pile. Some grottoes host huge coffins called erongs. They are the oldest necropolises in Tana Toraja. Erongs were cut in huge tree trunks and were box shaped with a lid, having the look of a boat and remembering the roofs of the Toraja houses. The surface was carefully polished and decorated. A braid of curb lines was separated from space to space by lozenges or squares. The same motifs are today found on the Toraja houses. The tradition of the erongs is today long forgotten.



Read More...... By: Stefan Anitei, Science Editor



Indonesia makes the world's largest archipelago, with 17,000 islands. One of its largest islands is Sulawesi (Celebes), which is like a bridge between Australia and Asia. A particular universe in Sulawesi is represented by Tana Toraja ("the Land of the Highlanders"), in the southern part of the island, dominated by the Rante-Kombola peak, 3,455 m (11,516 ft) tall.

The Toraja people consider that the soul is the most important notion and their religion is connected to one of the most spectacular burial rituals in the world, aimed to save the soul of the deceased, easing its way to the other world, that of the gods and spirits of the ancestors.

Toraja myths say that Rante-Kombola is the place the first people descended from on a stone ladder. Soon, the gods broke it, and the rocks of Bamba Puang are just remains of the sky ladder.

In 1905, Dutch troops defeated the resistance of the Toraja warriors, after one year of fights. The courage of the famous and fierce head-hunter Toraja warriors could do nothing against the modern weaponry as they used spears, swords, shields or threw pepper towards the Dutch soldiers. The Dutch army was soon followed by missionaries of the Reformed Church, with the aim of converting the locals to Christianity and forbid the older customs and traditions.

The Dutch were especially worried with how whole families got ruined by the funerary ceremonies asked by dluk, the ancestral religion. The violent revolt of 1917 showed the church that tactics had to be changed and the conversion methods had to be more subtle. With all the efforts, during the colonial period, just 10 % of the Toraja shifted for Christian religion. Paradoxically, a massive conversion occurred after Indonesia achieved its independence in 1965, to reach 86 % in 1980.

The two-souled people

Today, only few Toraja people follow the ancestral animist beliefs. For them, the world has three levels. The sky is the upper level, ruled by the supreme god Puang Matua, the creator of the people, animals and plants. The land is the intermediary level. The underground is the domain of the spirits, darkness and death.

Two other spheres influence the domain of the people. One is located in the southwest, being populated by the spirits of the ancestors, and the other in the northeast, belonging to the already deified ancestors.

The Toraja tradition says the people have 2 souls. The first is dewata, the divine soul, which leaves us when we die and ascends to Puang Matua, entering in its service, being put to watch at the compliance of the traditional religion canons, the way of the ancestors called "aluk to dolo".

The second soul is "bombo", the wandering soul of the dead, the terrestrial and human side. It splits in two, one remaining in the tomb with the dead, and the other hanging around. To reach Puya, the kingdom of the dead, where they will keep on existing, the souls must bypass many obstacles, fact that turns possible only owing to the support of the close relatives, which will accomplish rigorously a whole array of rites, grouped in several stages.

From his death to the first ceremony, the man is considered ill and lain on the floor of the house, with the head to the west and feet to the east. Then, the body is prepared: it is washed, the intestines are emptied and it is anointed with palm oil, after which it is wrapped in stripes of white fabric. The relatives cry loudly, but nobody pronounces the word "dead".

The start of the ceremony

The first ceremony starts immediately or after a while – sometimes weeks, months, up to one year, until all the necessary stuffs are gathered. It starts through animal sacrifices. First, buffaloes (kerabau), whose number varies depending on the caste of the dead, are sacrificed. In the case of the nobles, their number can be of 60-100. These massacres can ruin families. Dutch authorities tried to limit the number of the killed buffaloes to at most 40 and they also forbid one of the cruelest phases of the sacrifice, when the animals, still alive, were cut into pieces. The Indonesian government also limited drastically the number of sacrificed animals, imposing a high fee for each killed buffalo.

Only after the kill of the first buffalo, the person is considered dead. On the back of the second sacrificed buffalo, the soul of the dead leaves the village. The sacred animal of the Toraja accompanies them into the world of the spirits.

At the end of the ceremony, the horns of the sacrificed buffaloes will be stringed on a pole in front of the house, the one supporting the roof, as a proof of the social status of the dead. Then, the alimentary mourning starts, when rice consume is forbidden, and the wake, with the pray reciting, songs and circle dances, the people holding each other’s little fingers. This is Ma'Badong.

Relatives and friends start bringing offerings: buffaloes, pigs and rice. The flags of the deceased are raised in front of the house. The body is again wrapped in fabrics, taking the look of a large roll, due to the repeated coverings. Near the dead, a man carefully registers into a notebook each offering and its traits: the shape of the horns of the buffalo, its coat spots and so on. The quantity and quality of the offerings decide the inheritance share! Even the debts of the dead are inherited. But sometimes, the expense of the burial, together with the debts, may overmatch the value of the inheritance.

Megaliths on the sacred plain

The sacrifice of the pigs is devoid of pomp and spectators. Knives pierce their hearts. Their death is necessary as the ceremonies require meat. The festivity and the dead move to the plain, Ranta, the sacred field of the aligned megaliths. These menhirs have the weirdest shapes: square, circular, puckered or prolonged. Each stone is a commemorative monument, proof of a mortuary festivity. Some menhirs are taller than 6 m (20 ft) and can reach 8 tonnes. Others are small, of 20-30 cm (0.6-1 ft). Then, the dead is brought back to his home.

The second ceremony


Enlarge pictureThe next funerary ceremony takes place 9 days after the first one, or later – several months or several years (up to 20!), the deadline for the relatives to save the funds necessary for the festivity. The dead remains all this time inside the house, his body has not touched the tomb, and his soul is still searching for its way...

The same rites are restarted. The festivity amplifies. The dead is put out of the house in a coffin that must not touch the ground, being carried on a hearse resembling a Toraja house. He is carried through the fields and rice paddies, in the sounds of the gong, in the vast field of Ma'Palolo. A long line of mourning people follow him. The buffaloes and the other animals to be sacrificed finish the cortege.

The coffin is placed among the menhirs, in a previously prepared platform. Around the sacred field, a village of huts has been built, for hosting the hundreds of guests. Buffaloes and pigs are sacrificed again, and the meat is shared between the guests. At the shadow of the trees, people eat and drink palm wine. Prays are recited. Ma'maraka is sung by vocalists; their words attempt to comfort the family, expressing, at the same time, the support of the community.

The last ceremony

It takes place in the day called "towards the tomb". The dead will leave the field of menhirs. The coffin, located on the hearse, is carried on the shoulders of the men. After years of wandering, this is the last journey. The procession, accompanied by singing, reaches the funerary promenade. It is a large calcareous rock, in which liangs, the sepulchers of the families, are carved. A large ladder made of a tall bamboo stem with notches, will allow the ascend of the coffin to the liang. It is a difficult action, which requires skill and maxim effort. People go home. 30 days later, the relatives renounce to the mourning clothes. The soul of the dead has reached the kingdom of the spirits, watching for the wellbeing of the relatives and friends.

The funerary promenade

The entrance into the liang is covered by a richly decorated wooden plate. Under the window of the liang, a horned buffalo head is figured. Amongst the liangs, there are lodges hosting Tau-tau nangka ("small characters"), effigy dummies, representations of the dead, made of the wood of the breadfruit tree (Artocarpus) and dressed in fabrics. They lean carelessly on the wood bar keeping them prisoners in the narrow space of their balconies. The dummies differ in facial expressions, clothing and size; the clothes are bleached by sun and rain. Some wear cigarettes in their mouths or imitate life postures, like tiredness.

Men wear a type of turban or hats, whiter shirts, and over the shirt, a jacket or tog. On the right shoulder, there is a sarong. The lower body is covered by trousers or a long skirt. The necks are adorned with traditional collars or talismans made of pig teeth. Women wear a black fabric around their heads and simple blouses.

Tau-tau nangka are sought today by many museums and collectors, and because of the massive thefts, many Toraja hid their dummies in caves or guard the lodges, which are closed with lattices, shutters and latches and only shown to group of tourists.

A different type of tombs

Other tombs are located in natural grottoes, at tens of meters from their entrance, where the fabric rolls with the decomposed bodies pile. Some grottoes host huge coffins called erongs. They are the oldest necropolises in Tana Toraja. Erongs were cut in huge tree trunks and were box shaped with a lid, having the look of a boat and remembering the roofs of the Toraja houses. The surface was carefully polished and decorated. A braid of curb lines was separated from space to space by lozenges or squares. The same motifs are today found on the Toraja houses. The tradition of the erongs is today long forgotten.



Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
TONDON MAKALE

Letaknya di tepi jalanan kecil di dekat pasar Makale. Di sisi dari bukit terdapat barisan tau tau di muka dari kuburan gua. Kuburan ini adalah kepunyaan para keluarga bangsawan.
Tau-tau adalah patung yang menggambarkan si mati. Pada pemakaman golongan bangsawan atau penguasa / pemimpin masyarakat muka salah satu unsur Rapasan (pelengkap upacara acara adat), ialah pembuatan tau-tau. Tau-tau ini dibuat dari kayu nangka yang kuat yang pada saat penebangannya dilakukan secara adat. Mata yang hitam dibuat dari tulang dan tanduk kerbau. Tau-tau tersebut diatas terdapat di Toraja yakni tempat pekuburan di dinding berbatu.

Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
TONDON MAKALE

Letaknya di tepi jalanan kecil di dekat pasar Makale. Di sisi dari bukit terdapat barisan tau tau di muka dari kuburan gua. Kuburan ini adalah kepunyaan para keluarga bangsawan.
Tau-tau adalah patung yang menggambarkan si mati. Pada pemakaman golongan bangsawan atau penguasa / pemimpin masyarakat muka salah satu unsur Rapasan (pelengkap upacara acara adat), ialah pembuatan tau-tau. Tau-tau ini dibuat dari kayu nangka yang kuat yang pada saat penebangannya dilakukan secara adat. Mata yang hitam dibuat dari tulang dan tanduk kerbau. Tau-tau tersebut diatas terdapat di Toraja yakni tempat pekuburan di dinding berbatu.

Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
TO'BARANA' SA'DAN

Di lokasi To'Barana pada mulanya dilili' atau dibentuk oleh nenek moyang keluarga To'Barana' yang bernama Langi' Para'pak yang dijadikan perkampuang keluarga yang luasnya kira-kira 300 x 150 meter dan mendirikan sebuah rumah tongkonan keluarga yang dinamai tongkonan To'Barana'. Dibaharui oleh leluhur To'Barana' bernama Puang Pong Labba kira-kira dua abad yang lalu dan kemudian dibaharui pula oleh keluarga Puang Pong Padata pada tahun 1959, dimana lokasi dan rumah tongkonan tersebut diwariskan kepada turun temurunnya sampai dewasa ini dan sudah menjadi obyek wisata pertenunan asli.

Lokasi tersebut di pinggir sungai Sa'dan dan dikelilingi sungai Sa'dan yang berbentuk huruf "S" itulah sebabnya To'Barana' adalah pusat Sa'dan.


Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
TO'BARANA' SA'DAN

Di lokasi To'Barana pada mulanya dilili' atau dibentuk oleh nenek moyang keluarga To'Barana' yang bernama Langi' Para'pak yang dijadikan perkampuang keluarga yang luasnya kira-kira 300 x 150 meter dan mendirikan sebuah rumah tongkonan keluarga yang dinamai tongkonan To'Barana'. Dibaharui oleh leluhur To'Barana' bernama Puang Pong Labba kira-kira dua abad yang lalu dan kemudian dibaharui pula oleh keluarga Puang Pong Padata pada tahun 1959, dimana lokasi dan rumah tongkonan tersebut diwariskan kepada turun temurunnya sampai dewasa ini dan sudah menjadi obyek wisata pertenunan asli.

Lokasi tersebut di pinggir sungai Sa'dan dan dikelilingi sungai Sa'dan yang berbentuk huruf "S" itulah sebabnya To'Barana' adalah pusat Sa'dan.


Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
TILANGNGA'

Tilangnga' (Tilanga) sebagai obyek wisata permandian alam, ± 12 km dari kota Rantepao, arah selatan. Bila pengunjung ingin melemaskan otot-otot dan urat-urat yang penat sepanjang hari berkeliling ke obyek-obyek wisata, jangan lupa mandi di kolam air dingin Tilangnga'. Airnya sangat jernih, dingin, sejuk dan tidak pernah kering. Dan anda juga dapat menyaksikan ikan-ikan berwarna bersama belut-belut yang santai dalam kolam permandian ini, tanpa merasa terusik. Pada saat ini air yang mengalir dari obyek wisata ini digunakan untuk air PAM bagi masyarakat kota Makale dan sekitarnya.

Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
TILANGNGA'

Tilangnga' (Tilanga) sebagai obyek wisata permandian alam, ± 12 km dari kota Rantepao, arah selatan. Bila pengunjung ingin melemaskan otot-otot dan urat-urat yang penat sepanjang hari berkeliling ke obyek-obyek wisata, jangan lupa mandi di kolam air dingin Tilangnga'. Airnya sangat jernih, dingin, sejuk dan tidak pernah kering. Dan anda juga dapat menyaksikan ikan-ikan berwarna bersama belut-belut yang santai dalam kolam permandian ini, tanpa merasa terusik. Pada saat ini air yang mengalir dari obyek wisata ini digunakan untuk air PAM bagi masyarakat kota Makale dan sekitarnya.

Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
TAMPANG ALLO




Sejarah singkat obyek wisata Tampang Allo (atau Tampangallo) ini merupakan sebuah kuburan gua alam yang terletak di Kelurahan Kaero Kecamatan Sangalla' dan berisikan puluhan erong, puluhan tau-tau dan ratusan tengkorak dan tulang belulang manusia. Pada sekitar abad ke 16 oleh penguasa Sangalla' dalam hal ini Sang Puang Manturino bersama istrinya Rangga Bulaan memilih Gua Tampang Allo sebagai tempat pemakamannya kelak jika mereka meninggal dunia.
Demikianlah Rangga Bulaan di gadis cantik, asuhan sang kera, meninggal lebih dahulu dan jenazahnya dimasukkan ke dalam Erong serta diletakkan dalam gua Tampang Allo. Sedangkan Sang Puang Manturino pada saat meninggal Erong ditempatkan pada pemakaman losso' yang letaknya tidak jauh dari Tampang Allo. Entah bagaimana kemudian erong Sang Puang ternyata kosong. Sedangkan jenazahnya telah bersatu dengan jenazah istrinya di Tampang Allo. Lama setelah Sang Puang dan istrinya Rangga Bulaan meninggal dunia pusaka kerajaan yang disebut Bakasiroe' diambil alih oleh Puang Musu' sebagai penguasa Tongkonan Puang Kalosi. Pada masa itu juga Tana Toraja yang dikenal sebagai Tondok Lepongan Bulan Tana Matarik Allo berada dalam kekacauan akibat serangan dari kerajaan Bone. Terjadi juga peperangan antara daerah/ masyarakat setempat dan tentara Bone membantu salah satunya dan akibat yang kalah perang dirampas sawah dan kekayaannya serta orang-orangnya dikirim ke Madan dan ke daerah Bugis.
Puang Musu' membawa pusaka Baka Siroe' mengungsi ke Madan dan sewaktu Puang ini menyeberang sungai Sa'dan dan salah seorang yang bernama Karasiak membunuh Puang Musu' dan merampas Baka Siroe'. Keturunan Puang Musu' selalu berusaha dengan cara apapun untuk mengembalikan pusaka Baka Siroe' ke tempatnya semula pada tahun 1934, terjadilah perdamaian antara Puang Musu' dengan keturunan Karasiak melalui perkawinan. Kemudian dengan lahirnya anak di pari tangga, Pusaka Baka Siroe' diberikan kepada anak tersebut untuk menyimpan dan memeliharanya. Demikian juga tempat pemakaman mereka kelak disepakati di Gua Tampang Allo sebagai perwujudan perjanjian dan sumpah suami istri yaitu "sehidup semati satu kubur kita berdua".

Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
TAMPANG ALLO




Sejarah singkat obyek wisata Tampang Allo (atau Tampangallo) ini merupakan sebuah kuburan gua alam yang terletak di Kelurahan Kaero Kecamatan Sangalla' dan berisikan puluhan erong, puluhan tau-tau dan ratusan tengkorak dan tulang belulang manusia. Pada sekitar abad ke 16 oleh penguasa Sangalla' dalam hal ini Sang Puang Manturino bersama istrinya Rangga Bulaan memilih Gua Tampang Allo sebagai tempat pemakamannya kelak jika mereka meninggal dunia.
Demikianlah Rangga Bulaan di gadis cantik, asuhan sang kera, meninggal lebih dahulu dan jenazahnya dimasukkan ke dalam Erong serta diletakkan dalam gua Tampang Allo. Sedangkan Sang Puang Manturino pada saat meninggal Erong ditempatkan pada pemakaman losso' yang letaknya tidak jauh dari Tampang Allo. Entah bagaimana kemudian erong Sang Puang ternyata kosong. Sedangkan jenazahnya telah bersatu dengan jenazah istrinya di Tampang Allo. Lama setelah Sang Puang dan istrinya Rangga Bulaan meninggal dunia pusaka kerajaan yang disebut Bakasiroe' diambil alih oleh Puang Musu' sebagai penguasa Tongkonan Puang Kalosi. Pada masa itu juga Tana Toraja yang dikenal sebagai Tondok Lepongan Bulan Tana Matarik Allo berada dalam kekacauan akibat serangan dari kerajaan Bone. Terjadi juga peperangan antara daerah/ masyarakat setempat dan tentara Bone membantu salah satunya dan akibat yang kalah perang dirampas sawah dan kekayaannya serta orang-orangnya dikirim ke Madan dan ke daerah Bugis.
Puang Musu' membawa pusaka Baka Siroe' mengungsi ke Madan dan sewaktu Puang ini menyeberang sungai Sa'dan dan salah seorang yang bernama Karasiak membunuh Puang Musu' dan merampas Baka Siroe'. Keturunan Puang Musu' selalu berusaha dengan cara apapun untuk mengembalikan pusaka Baka Siroe' ke tempatnya semula pada tahun 1934, terjadilah perdamaian antara Puang Musu' dengan keturunan Karasiak melalui perkawinan. Kemudian dengan lahirnya anak di pari tangga, Pusaka Baka Siroe' diberikan kepada anak tersebut untuk menyimpan dan memeliharanya. Demikian juga tempat pemakaman mereka kelak disepakati di Gua Tampang Allo sebagai perwujudan perjanjian dan sumpah suami istri yaitu "sehidup semati satu kubur kita berdua".

Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
SUAYA

Kuburan berada di salah satu sisi dari bukit. Dipahat sebagai tempat beristirahat dari tujuh raja dan keluarga kerajaan Sangalla. Tau-tau dari raja-raja dan keluarga raja berpakaian sesuai dengan pakaian adat raja Toraja di tempatkan dimuka kuburan batu. Tangga batu tersedia untuk naik ke bukit dimana raja dikala hidupnya digunakan untuk bersepi-sepi, ditempat itu akan dibuat museum untuk menempatkan harta kekayaan dari raja-raja Sangalla.


Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
SUAYA

Kuburan berada di salah satu sisi dari bukit. Dipahat sebagai tempat beristirahat dari tujuh raja dan keluarga kerajaan Sangalla. Tau-tau dari raja-raja dan keluarga raja berpakaian sesuai dengan pakaian adat raja Toraja di tempatkan dimuka kuburan batu. Tangga batu tersedia untuk naik ke bukit dimana raja dikala hidupnya digunakan untuk bersepi-sepi, ditempat itu akan dibuat museum untuk menempatkan harta kekayaan dari raja-raja Sangalla.


Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
SILLANAN


Obyek wisata Ma'duang Tondok terletak di kecematan Mengkendek ± 20 km arah selatan Makale di Desa Sillanan.

Objek tersebut didukung oleh 4 objek wisata yaitu;
- Obyek wisata Lo'ko'wai
- Obyek wisata To'Banga
- Obyek wisata Pangrapasan dan Ma'dandan
- Obyek wisata Tongkonan Karua Sillanan

Objek tersebut masing-masing mempunyai daya tarik yang spesifik dan mempunyai keunggulan tersendiri seperti:

Lo'ko wai; di tempat lokasi ini terdapat mayat bayi yang unik dan awet (di mummy) di mana rambut, kuku, gigi serta kulitnya masih utuh meskipun umur mayat tersebut diperkiran sudah berumur ± 4½ abad. Mayat tersebut di sakralkan oleh masyarakat di wilayah adat Ma'duang Tondok yang secara mitologis diyakini adalah keturunan Dewa.

Kurang lebih 400 m sebelah selatan terdapat kuburan manusia purba yang terdiri dari tumpukan Erong, serta beberapa liang pahat disekitarnya. Hal lain yang bisa kita nikmati disekitar objek-objek ini adalah beberapa liang pahat disekitarnya. Hal lain yang bisa kita nikmati disekitar objek-objek ini adalah keindahan alam. Para pengunjung masih dapat menyaksikan pohon-pohon tropis yang terpelihara walaupun umurnya telah tua berkhasiat obat. Perkampungan tradisional yang masih asli dan unik tempat upacara adat, satu benteng pertahan yang digunakan untuk memantau musuh pada sekitar abad ke 16. Dan tidak pernah diterobos oleh musuh pada zaman dahulu. Wilayah obyek wisata Ma'duang Tondok secara keseluruhan sampai saat ini masih terpelihara dengan baik dan siap menanti kunjungan anda.

Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
SILLANAN


Obyek wisata Ma'duang Tondok terletak di kecematan Mengkendek ± 20 km arah selatan Makale di Desa Sillanan.

Objek tersebut didukung oleh 4 objek wisata yaitu;
- Obyek wisata Lo'ko'wai
- Obyek wisata To'Banga
- Obyek wisata Pangrapasan dan Ma'dandan
- Obyek wisata Tongkonan Karua Sillanan

Objek tersebut masing-masing mempunyai daya tarik yang spesifik dan mempunyai keunggulan tersendiri seperti:

Lo'ko wai; di tempat lokasi ini terdapat mayat bayi yang unik dan awet (di mummy) di mana rambut, kuku, gigi serta kulitnya masih utuh meskipun umur mayat tersebut diperkiran sudah berumur ± 4½ abad. Mayat tersebut di sakralkan oleh masyarakat di wilayah adat Ma'duang Tondok yang secara mitologis diyakini adalah keturunan Dewa.

Kurang lebih 400 m sebelah selatan terdapat kuburan manusia purba yang terdiri dari tumpukan Erong, serta beberapa liang pahat disekitarnya. Hal lain yang bisa kita nikmati disekitar objek-objek ini adalah beberapa liang pahat disekitarnya. Hal lain yang bisa kita nikmati disekitar objek-objek ini adalah keindahan alam. Para pengunjung masih dapat menyaksikan pohon-pohon tropis yang terpelihara walaupun umurnya telah tua berkhasiat obat. Perkampungan tradisional yang masih asli dan unik tempat upacara adat, satu benteng pertahan yang digunakan untuk memantau musuh pada sekitar abad ke 16. Dan tidak pernah diterobos oleh musuh pada zaman dahulu. Wilayah obyek wisata Ma'duang Tondok secara keseluruhan sampai saat ini masih terpelihara dengan baik dan siap menanti kunjungan anda.

Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
SIGUNTU'

Objek wisata Siguntu' yang terletak di Dusun Kadundung, Desa Nonongan Kecamatan Sanggalangi' dengan jarak 5 km dari Kota Rantepao. Objek wisata Siguntu' mempunyai daya tarik utama adalah Tongkonan yang unik dan berada di sebuah bukit dengan pemandangan yang mempesona, dikelilingi hamparan sawah pada bagian timur serta tebing-tebing bukit Buntu Tabang. Obyek Wisata Siguntu' mempunyai arti dan makna yang sangat luas dimana semula Tongkonan ini dikenal sebagai Tongkonan Tirorano yang bertempat di Tirorano rang dibangun oleh Pong Tanditulaan namun oleh karena sudah roboh dan tempatnya yang kurang strategis maka oleh keluarga membangun kembali dan disatukan di Siguntu'. Bersama Tongkonan Siguntu' dan Tongkonan Solo' itulah yang disebut Siguntu'. Tongkonan tersebut dibuka sebagai objek wisata tahun 1973 dan pada tahun 1974 Tongkonan ini dirara (diupacarakan secara adat / Rambu Tuka') dimana dihadiri oleh para delegasi 60 negara asing yang mengikuti konferensi PATA di Jakarta tahun 1974. Sejak itulah Toraja semakin dikenal sebagai Daerah Tujuan Wisata yang handal dan menakjubkan.

Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
SIGUNTU'

Objek wisata Siguntu' yang terletak di Dusun Kadundung, Desa Nonongan Kecamatan Sanggalangi' dengan jarak 5 km dari Kota Rantepao. Objek wisata Siguntu' mempunyai daya tarik utama adalah Tongkonan yang unik dan berada di sebuah bukit dengan pemandangan yang mempesona, dikelilingi hamparan sawah pada bagian timur serta tebing-tebing bukit Buntu Tabang. Obyek Wisata Siguntu' mempunyai arti dan makna yang sangat luas dimana semula Tongkonan ini dikenal sebagai Tongkonan Tirorano yang bertempat di Tirorano rang dibangun oleh Pong Tanditulaan namun oleh karena sudah roboh dan tempatnya yang kurang strategis maka oleh keluarga membangun kembali dan disatukan di Siguntu'. Bersama Tongkonan Siguntu' dan Tongkonan Solo' itulah yang disebut Siguntu'. Tongkonan tersebut dibuka sebagai objek wisata tahun 1973 dan pada tahun 1974 Tongkonan ini dirara (diupacarakan secara adat / Rambu Tuka') dimana dihadiri oleh para delegasi 60 negara asing yang mengikuti konferensi PATA di Jakarta tahun 1974. Sejak itulah Toraja semakin dikenal sebagai Daerah Tujuan Wisata yang handal dan menakjubkan.

Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
RANTEPAO, PUSAT WISATA DI TANA TORAJA

Lokasi yang pasti sudah banyak di kenal ke seluruh dunia adalah pusat wisata di Tana Toraja. Rantepao, 328 km arah utara dari kota Makassar. Terletak 800 meter di atas permukaan laut, Rantepao menawarkan malam-malam yang sejuk dan menyenangkan.

Di Rantepao adalah banyak biro tour & travel (rafting di sunga Sa'dan atau Maiting, package tours ke Tentena, Manado, Bali dll.) dan toko-toko cinderamata yang menjual souvenir khas Toraja, diantaranya: kain tenun, patung, golok (dari yang kecil s/d yang besar), ukiran kayu dan lain-lain. Di kota Rantepao adalah 4 pusat informasi pariwisata, 12 hotel berbintang dan kira-kira 60 hotel sederhana, wisma dan losmen yang murah untuk backpackers.


Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
RANTEPAO, PUSAT WISATA DI TANA TORAJA

Lokasi yang pasti sudah banyak di kenal ke seluruh dunia adalah pusat wisata di Tana Toraja. Rantepao, 328 km arah utara dari kota Makassar. Terletak 800 meter di atas permukaan laut, Rantepao menawarkan malam-malam yang sejuk dan menyenangkan.

Di Rantepao adalah banyak biro tour & travel (rafting di sunga Sa'dan atau Maiting, package tours ke Tentena, Manado, Bali dll.) dan toko-toko cinderamata yang menjual souvenir khas Toraja, diantaranya: kain tenun, patung, golok (dari yang kecil s/d yang besar), ukiran kayu dan lain-lain. Di kota Rantepao adalah 4 pusat informasi pariwisata, 12 hotel berbintang dan kira-kira 60 hotel sederhana, wisma dan losmen yang murah untuk backpackers.


Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
RANTE KARASSIK

Obyek wisata uli berada di tengah-tengah pemukiman masyarakat Rantepao. Jaraknya hanya ± 200 m dari poros jalan Makale- Rantepao. Rante Karassik adalah tempat pelaksanaan upacara adat pemakaman bangsawan dari Tongkonan Kamiri di Potoksia Buntu Pune. Rante tersebut mulai digunakan pada abad ke 19 oleh Pong Maramba' untuk acara upacara adat Rambu' Solo' Rapasan Sundun bagi keluarganya.

Lokasi ini memiliki batu simbuang megalit (menhir) yang jumlahnya 12 buah masih megah tertancap di atas tanah, dan ada yang ringginya 7,5 m serta puluhan lainnya masih tertanam di dalam tanah. Menhir ini adalah simbol bahwa telah sekian banyak upacara adat Rambu Solo' Rapasan yang telah dilaksanakan di lokasi tersebut.


Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
RANTE KARASSIK

Obyek wisata uli berada di tengah-tengah pemukiman masyarakat Rantepao. Jaraknya hanya ± 200 m dari poros jalan Makale- Rantepao. Rante Karassik adalah tempat pelaksanaan upacara adat pemakaman bangsawan dari Tongkonan Kamiri di Potoksia Buntu Pune. Rante tersebut mulai digunakan pada abad ke 19 oleh Pong Maramba' untuk acara upacara adat Rambu' Solo' Rapasan Sundun bagi keluarganya.

Lokasi ini memiliki batu simbuang megalit (menhir) yang jumlahnya 12 buah masih megah tertancap di atas tanah, dan ada yang ringginya 7,5 m serta puluhan lainnya masih tertanam di dalam tanah. Menhir ini adalah simbol bahwa telah sekian banyak upacara adat Rambu Solo' Rapasan yang telah dilaksanakan di lokasi tersebut.


Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
PANGLI, PATANE PONG MASSANGKA

Patane (kuburan dari kayu berbentuk rumah Toraja) dibangun pada tahun 1930. Untuk seorang janda yang bernama Palindatu yang meninggal pada tahun 1920 dan diupacarakan secara adat Toraja tertinggi yang disebut Rapasan sapu randanan. Palindatu dikawini oleh seorang putra bernama Tangkeallo dan melahirkan beberapa anak. Salah satu anaknya yang bungsu bernama Semba' alias Pong Massangka dengan gelar Ne' Babu' oleh kematian misionaris Belanda Arie van de Loosdrecht di Rante Dengen Bori' pada tanggal 27 Desember 1917, maka Pong Massangka alias Ne' Babu' salah satu yang tertuduh sehingga dihukum buang ke Bogor / Nusa Kambangan dan dikembalikan pada tahun 1930 ke Tana Toraja dan meninggal dunia pada tahun 1960 dalam usia 120 tahun (lahir 1840).
Mayat Pong Massangka dengan gelar Ne' Babu' disemayamkan dalam patane ini dan tau-taunya yang terbuat dari batu yang dipahat siap menanti kunjungan anda.





Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
PANGLI, PATANE PONG MASSANGKA

Patane (kuburan dari kayu berbentuk rumah Toraja) dibangun pada tahun 1930. Untuk seorang janda yang bernama Palindatu yang meninggal pada tahun 1920 dan diupacarakan secara adat Toraja tertinggi yang disebut Rapasan sapu randanan. Palindatu dikawini oleh seorang putra bernama Tangkeallo dan melahirkan beberapa anak. Salah satu anaknya yang bungsu bernama Semba' alias Pong Massangka dengan gelar Ne' Babu' oleh kematian misionaris Belanda Arie van de Loosdrecht di Rante Dengen Bori' pada tanggal 27 Desember 1917, maka Pong Massangka alias Ne' Babu' salah satu yang tertuduh sehingga dihukum buang ke Bogor / Nusa Kambangan dan dikembalikan pada tahun 1930 ke Tana Toraja dan meninggal dunia pada tahun 1960 dalam usia 120 tahun (lahir 1840).
Mayat Pong Massangka dengan gelar Ne' Babu' disemayamkan dalam patane ini dan tau-taunya yang terbuat dari batu yang dipahat siap menanti kunjungan anda.





Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
NANGGALA (PENANIAN)

Dahulu kala seorang lelaki dari Gunung Sesean bernama "Tomadao" bertualang. Dalam petualangannya ia bertemu dengan seorang gadis dari gunung Tibembeng bernama "Tallo Mangka Kalena". Mereka kemudian menikah dan bermukim di sebelah timur desa Palawa' sekarang ini yang bernama Kulambu. Dari perkawinan ini lahir seorang anak laki-laki bernama Datu Muane' yang kemudian menikahi seorang wanita bernama Lai Rangri'. Kemudian mereka beranak pinak dan mendirikan sebuah kampung yang sekaligus berfungsi sebagai benteng pertahanan. Apabila ada peperangan antara kampung dan ada lawan yang menyerang dan dikalahkan/dibunuh, maka darahnya diminum dan dagingnya dicincang dan disebut Pa'lawak. Pada pertengahan abad ke 11 berdasarkan musyawarah adat disepakati mengganti nama Pa'lawak menjadi Palawa'. Palawa' sebagai suatu kompleks perumahan adat. Dan bukan lagi daging manusia yang dimakan, tetapi diganti dengan ayam, dan disebut Pa'lawa' manuk.
Keturunan Datu Muane secara berturut-turut membangun tongkonan di Palawa'.

Sekarang ini terdapat sebelas tongkonan (rumah adat) yang urutannya sebagai berikut (dihitung dari sebelah barat):
1. Tongkonan Salassa' dibangun oleh Salassa'
2. Tongkonan Buntu dibangun oleh Ne' Tatan
3. Tongkonan Ne' Niro dibangun oleh Patangke dan Sampe bungin
4. Tongkonan Ne' Darre dibangun oleh Ne' Matasik
5. Tongkonan Ne' Sapea dibangun oleh Ne' Sapiah
6. Tongkonan Katile dibangun oleh Ne' Pipe
7. Tongkonan Ne' Malle dibangun oleh Ne' Malle
8. Tongkonan Sasana Budaya dibangun oleh Ne' Malle
9. Tongkonan Bamba II dibangun oleh Patampang
10. Tongkonan Ne' Babu' dibangun oleh Ne' Babu'
11. Tongkonan Bamba I dibangun oleh Ne' Ta'pare

Sebagaimana layaknya tongkonan di Tana Toraja, maka tongkonan Palawa' juga memiliki rante yang disebut Rante Pa'padanunan dan liang tua (kuburan batu) di Tiro Allo dan Kamandi. Selain Tongkonan juga dibangun lumbung atau alang sura' (tempat menyimpan padi) sebanyak 5 buah.


Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
NANGGALA (PENANIAN)

Dahulu kala seorang lelaki dari Gunung Sesean bernama "Tomadao" bertualang. Dalam petualangannya ia bertemu dengan seorang gadis dari gunung Tibembeng bernama "Tallo Mangka Kalena". Mereka kemudian menikah dan bermukim di sebelah timur desa Palawa' sekarang ini yang bernama Kulambu. Dari perkawinan ini lahir seorang anak laki-laki bernama Datu Muane' yang kemudian menikahi seorang wanita bernama Lai Rangri'. Kemudian mereka beranak pinak dan mendirikan sebuah kampung yang sekaligus berfungsi sebagai benteng pertahanan. Apabila ada peperangan antara kampung dan ada lawan yang menyerang dan dikalahkan/dibunuh, maka darahnya diminum dan dagingnya dicincang dan disebut Pa'lawak. Pada pertengahan abad ke 11 berdasarkan musyawarah adat disepakati mengganti nama Pa'lawak menjadi Palawa'. Palawa' sebagai suatu kompleks perumahan adat. Dan bukan lagi daging manusia yang dimakan, tetapi diganti dengan ayam, dan disebut Pa'lawa' manuk.
Keturunan Datu Muane secara berturut-turut membangun tongkonan di Palawa'.

Sekarang ini terdapat sebelas tongkonan (rumah adat) yang urutannya sebagai berikut (dihitung dari sebelah barat):
1. Tongkonan Salassa' dibangun oleh Salassa'
2. Tongkonan Buntu dibangun oleh Ne' Tatan
3. Tongkonan Ne' Niro dibangun oleh Patangke dan Sampe bungin
4. Tongkonan Ne' Darre dibangun oleh Ne' Matasik
5. Tongkonan Ne' Sapea dibangun oleh Ne' Sapiah
6. Tongkonan Katile dibangun oleh Ne' Pipe
7. Tongkonan Ne' Malle dibangun oleh Ne' Malle
8. Tongkonan Sasana Budaya dibangun oleh Ne' Malle
9. Tongkonan Bamba II dibangun oleh Patampang
10. Tongkonan Ne' Babu' dibangun oleh Ne' Babu'
11. Tongkonan Bamba I dibangun oleh Ne' Ta'pare

Sebagaimana layaknya tongkonan di Tana Toraja, maka tongkonan Palawa' juga memiliki rante yang disebut Rante Pa'padanunan dan liang tua (kuburan batu) di Tiro Allo dan Kamandi. Selain Tongkonan juga dibangun lumbung atau alang sura' (tempat menyimpan padi) sebanyak 5 buah.


Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja

MARANTE


Pada mulanya Desa Tondon lasim disebut Mesa' Ba'bana Tondon Apa' Tepona Padang, yaitu Tondok Batu, Siba'ta, Kondo' dan Langi'. Sangpulo dua Karopi'na itulah Desa Tondon, yang dipimpin oleh dua pemangku adat yang lazim disebut Toparenge', yaitu Marante dan Barang Bua'. Fungsi Toparenge' disini adalah memimpin segala kegiatan yang dilaksanakan oleh masyarakat baik itu upacara pesta syukur (Rambu Tuka') maupun upacara pesta pemakaman (Rambu Solo'), juga penentu kebijakan-kebijakan yang berlaku dalam masyarakat. Seiring dengan kemajuan pembangunan dan terpilihnya Tana Toraja sebagai salah satu daerah tujuan wisata di Indonesia.
Sejak itu juga Marante terpilih sebagai salah satu obyek wisata yang ada di Tana Toraja, karena Marante mempunyai letak yang sangat strategis, yaitu terletak pada jalan poros dari Makassar ke Palopo dan letaknya tidak jauh dari kota Rantepao yang jaraknya kira-kira 4 km. Disamping itu Marante mempunyai daya tarik tersendiri bagi wisatawan asing yang datang berkunjung ke Marante, baik itu wisatawan mancanegara maupun wisatawan nusantara/domestik

Obyek wisata Marante memiliki banyak daya tarik peninggalan-peninggalan kuno yaitu berupa;
- Rumah adat (rumah tongkonan)
- Patung-patung (tau-tau)
- Erong
- Kuburan batu/liang pahat
- Patane (kuburan kayu)

Dan masih banyak lagi pemandangan yang bisa memikat hati wisatawan. Demikianlah sekelumit sejarah singkat dan daya tarik obyek wisata Marante.


Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja

MARANTE


Pada mulanya Desa Tondon lasim disebut Mesa' Ba'bana Tondon Apa' Tepona Padang, yaitu Tondok Batu, Siba'ta, Kondo' dan Langi'. Sangpulo dua Karopi'na itulah Desa Tondon, yang dipimpin oleh dua pemangku adat yang lazim disebut Toparenge', yaitu Marante dan Barang Bua'. Fungsi Toparenge' disini adalah memimpin segala kegiatan yang dilaksanakan oleh masyarakat baik itu upacara pesta syukur (Rambu Tuka') maupun upacara pesta pemakaman (Rambu Solo'), juga penentu kebijakan-kebijakan yang berlaku dalam masyarakat. Seiring dengan kemajuan pembangunan dan terpilihnya Tana Toraja sebagai salah satu daerah tujuan wisata di Indonesia.
Sejak itu juga Marante terpilih sebagai salah satu obyek wisata yang ada di Tana Toraja, karena Marante mempunyai letak yang sangat strategis, yaitu terletak pada jalan poros dari Makassar ke Palopo dan letaknya tidak jauh dari kota Rantepao yang jaraknya kira-kira 4 km. Disamping itu Marante mempunyai daya tarik tersendiri bagi wisatawan asing yang datang berkunjung ke Marante, baik itu wisatawan mancanegara maupun wisatawan nusantara/domestik

Obyek wisata Marante memiliki banyak daya tarik peninggalan-peninggalan kuno yaitu berupa;
- Rumah adat (rumah tongkonan)
- Patung-patung (tau-tau)
- Erong
- Kuburan batu/liang pahat
- Patane (kuburan kayu)

Dan masih banyak lagi pemandangan yang bisa memikat hati wisatawan. Demikianlah sekelumit sejarah singkat dan daya tarik obyek wisata Marante.


Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja


MAKULA

Rekreasi bagi manusia-manusia modern yang kini hidup dalam abad komputer dan IPTEK yang canggih, bukan lagi sekedar sebagai pelengkap, tapih sudah menjadi kebutuhan utama, untuk membuat otak, hati dan perasaan mengalami refreshing. Oleh sebab itu kami mengajak anda untuk segera mengunjungi kolam renang air panas Makula yang jaraknya hanya 28 km dari kota Rantepao. Di tempat ini ada sumber mata air panas, di samping ada rumah tempat istirahat mempunyai bak mandi dengan sumber mata air yang mengalir. Di muka ada kolam kecil untuk anak-anak diisi oleh air panas yang mengalir dari belakang rumah. Tempat ini sangat baik untuk berendam di air panas setelah perjalanan jauh. Pergi pulang, anda dapat menikmati pemandangan alam yang menyenangkan hati. Selamat berekreasi dan jangan lupa membawa keluarga.

Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja


MAKULA

Rekreasi bagi manusia-manusia modern yang kini hidup dalam abad komputer dan IPTEK yang canggih, bukan lagi sekedar sebagai pelengkap, tapih sudah menjadi kebutuhan utama, untuk membuat otak, hati dan perasaan mengalami refreshing. Oleh sebab itu kami mengajak anda untuk segera mengunjungi kolam renang air panas Makula yang jaraknya hanya 28 km dari kota Rantepao. Di tempat ini ada sumber mata air panas, di samping ada rumah tempat istirahat mempunyai bak mandi dengan sumber mata air yang mengalir. Di muka ada kolam kecil untuk anak-anak diisi oleh air panas yang mengalir dari belakang rumah. Tempat ini sangat baik untuk berendam di air panas setelah perjalanan jauh. Pergi pulang, anda dapat menikmati pemandangan alam yang menyenangkan hati. Selamat berekreasi dan jangan lupa membawa keluarga.

Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
MAKALE, IBUKOTA TANA TORAJA

Pada asal mulanya Makale berasal dari kata Makale menurut kata orang, penduduk yang hidup di Makale senantiasa bangun pada waktu matahari belum terbit (Makale') oleh karena leluhur mereka mempercayai bahwa orang yang bangun mendahului matahari terbit (Makale') selalu mendapat keberuntungan atau rezeki. Tetapi karena perubahan ucapan kata maka Makale' berubah menjadi Makale. Makale adalah pusat pemerintahan dan juga terkenal sebagai kota tenang dan damai. Di tengah-tengah kota Makale terdapat sebuah kolam yang airnya jernih dan penuh berisi dengan bermacam jenis ikan. Kolamnya di sebut kolam Makale.
Bukit-bukit yang terjal dari kota dimahkotai oleh puncak menara gereja, sembari kaki lembah didominasi oleh bangunan pemerintah yang baru. Banyak di antaranya mengambil tipe bangunan rumah tradisional Toraja arsitektur yang penuh dengan ukiran dan atap yang melengkung. Kota merupakan daerah yang tepat menghubungkan dengan daerah Toraja barat, sekitar Londa, Suaya dan Sangalla. Pada saat pasar kota ini merupakan pusat aktivitas karena rakyat dari jauh datang dengan hasil produksinya berupa binatang, kerajinan tangan tikar, keranjang dan kerajinan buatan lokal.

Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
MAKALE, IBUKOTA TANA TORAJA

Pada asal mulanya Makale berasal dari kata Makale menurut kata orang, penduduk yang hidup di Makale senantiasa bangun pada waktu matahari belum terbit (Makale') oleh karena leluhur mereka mempercayai bahwa orang yang bangun mendahului matahari terbit (Makale') selalu mendapat keberuntungan atau rezeki. Tetapi karena perubahan ucapan kata maka Makale' berubah menjadi Makale. Makale adalah pusat pemerintahan dan juga terkenal sebagai kota tenang dan damai. Di tengah-tengah kota Makale terdapat sebuah kolam yang airnya jernih dan penuh berisi dengan bermacam jenis ikan. Kolamnya di sebut kolam Makale.
Bukit-bukit yang terjal dari kota dimahkotai oleh puncak menara gereja, sembari kaki lembah didominasi oleh bangunan pemerintah yang baru. Banyak di antaranya mengambil tipe bangunan rumah tradisional Toraja arsitektur yang penuh dengan ukiran dan atap yang melengkung. Kota merupakan daerah yang tepat menghubungkan dengan daerah Toraja barat, sekitar Londa, Suaya dan Sangalla. Pada saat pasar kota ini merupakan pusat aktivitas karena rakyat dari jauh datang dengan hasil produksinya berupa binatang, kerajinan tangan tikar, keranjang dan kerajinan buatan lokal.

Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
LONDA

Sama dengan Lemo, Londa adalah tempat pekuburan dinding berbatu dan patung-patung (tau-tau). Di dalamnya terdapat gua dengan banyak tengkorak kepala manusia. obyek wisata Londa yang berada di desa Sandan Uai Kecamatan Sanggalangi' dengan jarak 7 km dari kota Rantepao, arah ke selatan, adalah kuburan alam purba. Gua yang tergantung itu, menyimpan misteri yakni erong puluhan banyaknya, dan penuh berisikan tulang dan tengkorak para leluhur, tau-tau. Tau-tau adalah pertanda bahwa telah sekian banyak putra-putra Toraja terbaik telah dimakamkan melalui upacara adat tertinggi di wilayah Tallulolo. Gua-gua alam ini penuh dengan panorama yang menakjubkan ± 1.000 m jauh kedalam, dapat dinikmati dengan petunjuk guide yang sudah terlatih dan profesional.
Kuburan alam purba ini dilengkapi dengan sebuah "Benteng Pertahanan". Patabang Bunga yang bernama Tarangenge, yang terletak di atas punggung gua alam ini. obyek ini sangat mudah dikunjungi, oleh karena sarana dan prasarana jalannya baik. Satu hal perlu diingat bahwa seseorang yang berkunjung ke obyek ini, wajib memohon izin dengan membawa sirih pinang, atau kembang. Sangat tabu/pemali (dilarang keras) untuk mengambil atau memindahkan tulang, tengkorak, atau mayat yang ada dalam gua ini.

Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
LONDA

Sama dengan Lemo, Londa adalah tempat pekuburan dinding berbatu dan patung-patung (tau-tau). Di dalamnya terdapat gua dengan banyak tengkorak kepala manusia. obyek wisata Londa yang berada di desa Sandan Uai Kecamatan Sanggalangi' dengan jarak 7 km dari kota Rantepao, arah ke selatan, adalah kuburan alam purba. Gua yang tergantung itu, menyimpan misteri yakni erong puluhan banyaknya, dan penuh berisikan tulang dan tengkorak para leluhur, tau-tau. Tau-tau adalah pertanda bahwa telah sekian banyak putra-putra Toraja terbaik telah dimakamkan melalui upacara adat tertinggi di wilayah Tallulolo. Gua-gua alam ini penuh dengan panorama yang menakjubkan ± 1.000 m jauh kedalam, dapat dinikmati dengan petunjuk guide yang sudah terlatih dan profesional.
Kuburan alam purba ini dilengkapi dengan sebuah "Benteng Pertahanan". Patabang Bunga yang bernama Tarangenge, yang terletak di atas punggung gua alam ini. obyek ini sangat mudah dikunjungi, oleh karena sarana dan prasarana jalannya baik. Satu hal perlu diingat bahwa seseorang yang berkunjung ke obyek ini, wajib memohon izin dengan membawa sirih pinang, atau kembang. Sangat tabu/pemali (dilarang keras) untuk mengambil atau memindahkan tulang, tengkorak, atau mayat yang ada dalam gua ini.

Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
LOMBOK PARINDING


Kuburan Erong Lombok Parinding adalah merupakan salah satu obyek wisata yang menarik karena mempunyai daya tarik tersendiri seperti Erong yang unik dan antik, yang terletak di Dusun Parinding Matampu Kecamatan Sesean, kurang lebih 7 km dari kota Rantepao ke utara. Lombok Parinding pertama kali ditempati oleh salah seorang yang bernama Tomangli anak dari suami istri Bongga Tonapo dan Datu Banua sekaligus cucu dari suami istri Palairan dan Patodemmanik dan disitulah mereka menetap mendirikan rumah sambil bertani-sawah. Selanjutnya Tomangli melahirkan 8 orang dan anak Tomangli berkembang biak sampai sekarang (keturunan yang ke 7). Melihat dan memperhatikan serta menghitung-hitung umur dan kuburan erong Lombok Parinding mulai dari ke 8 orang anak-anak Tomongli sudah berumur kurang lebih 700 tahun. Demikianlah sejarah singkat kuburan erong Lombok Parinding. Semoga sejarah singkat ini dapat bermanfaat bagi wisatawan dan dapat dijadikan sebagai bahan informasi.




Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
LOMBOK PARINDING


Kuburan Erong Lombok Parinding adalah merupakan salah satu obyek wisata yang menarik karena mempunyai daya tarik tersendiri seperti Erong yang unik dan antik, yang terletak di Dusun Parinding Matampu Kecamatan Sesean, kurang lebih 7 km dari kota Rantepao ke utara. Lombok Parinding pertama kali ditempati oleh salah seorang yang bernama Tomangli anak dari suami istri Bongga Tonapo dan Datu Banua sekaligus cucu dari suami istri Palairan dan Patodemmanik dan disitulah mereka menetap mendirikan rumah sambil bertani-sawah. Selanjutnya Tomangli melahirkan 8 orang dan anak Tomangli berkembang biak sampai sekarang (keturunan yang ke 7). Melihat dan memperhatikan serta menghitung-hitung umur dan kuburan erong Lombok Parinding mulai dari ke 8 orang anak-anak Tomongli sudah berumur kurang lebih 700 tahun. Demikianlah sejarah singkat kuburan erong Lombok Parinding. Semoga sejarah singkat ini dapat bermanfaat bagi wisatawan dan dapat dijadikan sebagai bahan informasi.




Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
LO'KO' MATA

Lo'ko' Mata (Lokomata) mengambil posisi di lerang gunung Sesean pada ketinggian ± 1.400 m di atas permukaan laut. Suatu tempat yang sangat menawan, fantastik dan bila seseorang datang dan menyaksikan serta merenungkan ciptaan ini rasa kangen pasti ada. Selain itu anda dapat menyaksikan panorama alam yang sangat indah dan deru arus sungai di bawah kaki kuburan alam ini. Yang terletak di desa Pangden ± 30 km dari kota Rantepao.

Nama Lo'ko' Mata diberi kemudian oleh karena batu alam yang dipahat ini menyerupai kepala manusia, tetapi sebenarnya liang Lo'ko' Mata sebelumnya bernama Dassi Dewata atau Burung Dewa, oleh karena liang ini ditempati bertengger dan bersarang jenis-jenis burung yang indah-indah warna bulunya, dengan suara yang sangat mengasyikkan tetapi kadang-kadang menakutkan.

Pada abad ke 14 (1480) datanglah pemuda Kiding memahat batu raksasa ini untuk makam mertuanya yang bernama Pong Raga dan Randa Tasik (I) selanjutnya pada abad 16 tahun 1675 lubang rang ke II dipahat oleh Kombong dan Lembang. Dan pada abad ke 17 lubang yang ke III dibuat oleh Rubak dan Datu Bua'. Liang pahat ini tetap digunakan sampai saat ini saat kita telah memasuki abad ke / (milenium III). Luas areal obyek wisata. Lo'ko' Mata ± 1 ha dan semua lubang yang ada sekitar 60 buah.





Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
LO'KO' MATA

Lo'ko' Mata (Lokomata) mengambil posisi di lerang gunung Sesean pada ketinggian ± 1.400 m di atas permukaan laut. Suatu tempat yang sangat menawan, fantastik dan bila seseorang datang dan menyaksikan serta merenungkan ciptaan ini rasa kangen pasti ada. Selain itu anda dapat menyaksikan panorama alam yang sangat indah dan deru arus sungai di bawah kaki kuburan alam ini. Yang terletak di desa Pangden ± 30 km dari kota Rantepao.

Nama Lo'ko' Mata diberi kemudian oleh karena batu alam yang dipahat ini menyerupai kepala manusia, tetapi sebenarnya liang Lo'ko' Mata sebelumnya bernama Dassi Dewata atau Burung Dewa, oleh karena liang ini ditempati bertengger dan bersarang jenis-jenis burung yang indah-indah warna bulunya, dengan suara yang sangat mengasyikkan tetapi kadang-kadang menakutkan.

Pada abad ke 14 (1480) datanglah pemuda Kiding memahat batu raksasa ini untuk makam mertuanya yang bernama Pong Raga dan Randa Tasik (I) selanjutnya pada abad 16 tahun 1675 lubang rang ke II dipahat oleh Kombong dan Lembang. Dan pada abad ke 17 lubang yang ke III dibuat oleh Rubak dan Datu Bua'. Liang pahat ini tetap digunakan sampai saat ini saat kita telah memasuki abad ke / (milenium III). Luas areal obyek wisata. Lo'ko' Mata ± 1 ha dan semua lubang yang ada sekitar 60 buah.





Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
LEMO BUNTANG

Lemo adalah tempat pekuburan dinding berbatu dan patung-patung (tau-tau). Jumlah lubang batu kuno ada 75 buah dan tau-tau yang tegak berdiri sejumlah 40 buah sebagai lambang-lambang prestise, status, peran dan kedudukan para bangsawan di desa Lemo. Di beri nama Lemo oleh karena model liang batu ini ada yang menyerupai jeruk bundar dan berbintik-bintik. Sejak tahun 1960, obyek wisata ini telah ramai di kunjungi para wisatawan asing dan wisatawan nusantara.
Pengunjung dapat pula melepaskan keinginannya dan membelanjakan dolarnya, euronya atau rupiahnya pada kios-kios souvenir. Ataukah berjalan-jalan sekitar obyek menyaksikan buah-buah pangi yang ranum kecoklatan, yang siap diolah dan di makan sebagai makanan khas suku Toraja yang di sebut "Pantollo Pamarrasan". Selamat menikmati.





Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
LEMO BUNTANG

Lemo adalah tempat pekuburan dinding berbatu dan patung-patung (tau-tau). Jumlah lubang batu kuno ada 75 buah dan tau-tau yang tegak berdiri sejumlah 40 buah sebagai lambang-lambang prestise, status, peran dan kedudukan para bangsawan di desa Lemo. Di beri nama Lemo oleh karena model liang batu ini ada yang menyerupai jeruk bundar dan berbintik-bintik. Sejak tahun 1960, obyek wisata ini telah ramai di kunjungi para wisatawan asing dan wisatawan nusantara.
Pengunjung dapat pula melepaskan keinginannya dan membelanjakan dolarnya, euronya atau rupiahnya pada kios-kios souvenir. Ataukah berjalan-jalan sekitar obyek menyaksikan buah-buah pangi yang ranum kecoklatan, yang siap diolah dan di makan sebagai makanan khas suku Toraja yang di sebut "Pantollo Pamarrasan". Selamat menikmati.





Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
KE'TE' KESU'

Ke'te' Kesu' adalah obyek wisata yang sudah populer diantara turis domestik dan asing sejak tahun 1979 terletak dikampung Bonoran yang berjarak 4 km dari Kota Rantepao, telah ditetapkan sebagai salah satu Cagar Budaya dengan nomor registrasi 290 yang perlu dilestarikan / dilindungi. obyek wisata ini sangat menarik, oleh karena memiliki suatu kompleks perumahan adat Toraja yang masih asli, yang terdiri dari beberapa Tongkonan, lengkap dengan Alang Sura' (lumbung padinya).
Tongkonan tersebut dari leluhur Puang ri Kesu' di fungsikan sebagai tempat bermusyawarah, mengelolah, menetapkan dan melaksanakan aturan-aturan adat, baik aluk maupun pemali yang digunakan sebagai aturan hidup dan bermasyarakat di daerah Kesu', dan juga di seluruh Tana Toraja, yang disebut aluk Sanda Pitunna (7777). Obyek wisata ini dilengkapi pula dengan areal; upacara pemakaman (rante), kuburan (liang) purba dan makam-makam modern, namun tetap berbentuk motif khas Toraja, pemukiman, perkebunan dan persawahan yang cantik dan menyejukkan hati. Sekaligus para pengunjung dapat menyaksikan seni ukir Toraja di lokasi ini.





Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
KE'TE' KESU'

Ke'te' Kesu' adalah obyek wisata yang sudah populer diantara turis domestik dan asing sejak tahun 1979 terletak dikampung Bonoran yang berjarak 4 km dari Kota Rantepao, telah ditetapkan sebagai salah satu Cagar Budaya dengan nomor registrasi 290 yang perlu dilestarikan / dilindungi. obyek wisata ini sangat menarik, oleh karena memiliki suatu kompleks perumahan adat Toraja yang masih asli, yang terdiri dari beberapa Tongkonan, lengkap dengan Alang Sura' (lumbung padinya).
Tongkonan tersebut dari leluhur Puang ri Kesu' di fungsikan sebagai tempat bermusyawarah, mengelolah, menetapkan dan melaksanakan aturan-aturan adat, baik aluk maupun pemali yang digunakan sebagai aturan hidup dan bermasyarakat di daerah Kesu', dan juga di seluruh Tana Toraja, yang disebut aluk Sanda Pitunna (7777). Obyek wisata ini dilengkapi pula dengan areal; upacara pemakaman (rante), kuburan (liang) purba dan makam-makam modern, namun tetap berbentuk motif khas Toraja, pemukiman, perkebunan dan persawahan yang cantik dan menyejukkan hati. Sekaligus para pengunjung dapat menyaksikan seni ukir Toraja di lokasi ini.





Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
KAMBIRA - KUBURAN BAYI / PASSILIKAN

Seseorang yang belum tembuh gigi apabila meninggal dunia akan dikuburkan ke dalam sebatang pohon kayu yang hidup dari jenis pohon kayu Tarra'. Kayu yang digunakan dilokasi ini telah berumur sekitar ± 300 tahun yang lalu.
Proses pelaksanaan pekuburan sejenis ini mengenal tahap-tahap sebagai berikut:

Bayi yang meninggal dibalut dengan kian putih yang pernah dipakai dalam posisi dalam keadaan dipangku.
Kemudian keluarga memberi tanda pada pohon kayu yang hendak digunakan sebagai kuburan (ma'tanda kayu).
Membuat lubang dengan ketentuan tidak boleh berhadapan dengan rumah kediamannya.
Mempersiapkan penutup kubur dari bahan pelepah enau (kulimbang ijuk).
Membuat tana' (pasak) karurung dari ijuk sesuai tingkatan strata sosialnya.
12 tana' karurung bagi tingkatan bangsawan.
8 tana' karurung bagi tingkatan menengah.
6 tana' karurung bagi tingkatan bawah.

Ma'kadende' yaitu membuat tali ijuk sebelum jenasah dibawa ke kuburan, seekor babi jantan hitam dipotong/disembelih di halaman rumah duka, kemudian dibawa ke kuburan dengan diusung. Setibanya di kuburan babi/daging tersebut dimasak dalam bambu/dipiong, tanpa diberi garam atau bumbu lainnya setelah semua itu siap mayat dibawah ke kuburan dengan syarat sebagai berikut:

Dibawa dalam posisi dipangku.

Pengantar mayat baik laki-laki maupun perempuan harus berselubung kain.

Dilarang berbicara, menoleh ke kiri atau ke kanan maupun ke belakang.

Setibanya jenasah di pekuburan penjemput jenasah turun dari tangga lalu mengambil, mengangkat, dan memasukkan jenasah ke dalam lubang kayu dalam posisi berlutut menghadap keluar. Kemudian kubur itu ditutup dengan kulimbang di tana' /dipasak sesuai dengan statusnya dan sesudah ini dilapisi dengan ijuk dan diikat dengan kadende' (tali ijuk).
Sepanjang kegiatan tersebut di atas, seluruh orang yang hadir dilarang berbicara, nanti setelah ma'taletek pa'piong (membelah bambu berisi daging yang sudah masak) berarti orang sudah boleh berbicara dan orang yang berada diatas tangga sudah boleh turun.


Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
KAMBIRA - KUBURAN BAYI / PASSILIKAN

Seseorang yang belum tembuh gigi apabila meninggal dunia akan dikuburkan ke dalam sebatang pohon kayu yang hidup dari jenis pohon kayu Tarra'. Kayu yang digunakan dilokasi ini telah berumur sekitar ± 300 tahun yang lalu.
Proses pelaksanaan pekuburan sejenis ini mengenal tahap-tahap sebagai berikut:

Bayi yang meninggal dibalut dengan kian putih yang pernah dipakai dalam posisi dalam keadaan dipangku.
Kemudian keluarga memberi tanda pada pohon kayu yang hendak digunakan sebagai kuburan (ma'tanda kayu).
Membuat lubang dengan ketentuan tidak boleh berhadapan dengan rumah kediamannya.
Mempersiapkan penutup kubur dari bahan pelepah enau (kulimbang ijuk).
Membuat tana' (pasak) karurung dari ijuk sesuai tingkatan strata sosialnya.
12 tana' karurung bagi tingkatan bangsawan.
8 tana' karurung bagi tingkatan menengah.
6 tana' karurung bagi tingkatan bawah.

Ma'kadende' yaitu membuat tali ijuk sebelum jenasah dibawa ke kuburan, seekor babi jantan hitam dipotong/disembelih di halaman rumah duka, kemudian dibawa ke kuburan dengan diusung. Setibanya di kuburan babi/daging tersebut dimasak dalam bambu/dipiong, tanpa diberi garam atau bumbu lainnya setelah semua itu siap mayat dibawah ke kuburan dengan syarat sebagai berikut:

Dibawa dalam posisi dipangku.

Pengantar mayat baik laki-laki maupun perempuan harus berselubung kain.

Dilarang berbicara, menoleh ke kiri atau ke kanan maupun ke belakang.

Setibanya jenasah di pekuburan penjemput jenasah turun dari tangga lalu mengambil, mengangkat, dan memasukkan jenasah ke dalam lubang kayu dalam posisi berlutut menghadap keluar. Kemudian kubur itu ditutup dengan kulimbang di tana' /dipasak sesuai dengan statusnya dan sesudah ini dilapisi dengan ijuk dan diikat dengan kadende' (tali ijuk).
Sepanjang kegiatan tersebut di atas, seluruh orang yang hadir dilarang berbicara, nanti setelah ma'taletek pa'piong (membelah bambu berisi daging yang sudah masak) berarti orang sudah boleh berbicara dan orang yang berada diatas tangga sudah boleh turun.


Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
GALUGA DUA

Tongkonan Layukna Galuga Dua merupakan salah satu tongkonan yang dijadikan pengadilan, selain digunakan untuk pengadilan terhadap pelanggaran adat yang menjadi tanggung jawab To'Perengnge, juga merupakan pusat musyawarah para pemimpin keluarga dari Tongkonan Galuga dua untuk menentukan suatu rencana. Terletak sekitar 12 Km, arah utara dari Rantepao, Tongkonan Layukna Puang Galuga Dua; ini dibangun pada tahun 1189 oleh kedua putra Galuga. Dari kedua putranya ini, masing-masing membangun Tongkonan yaitu Tongkonan Papabannu' dari putra pertama dan Banau Sura' dari putra keduanya.

Tongkonan Layukna Galuga selain tongkonan keluarga Galuga Dua juga merupakan pusat pertenunan dengan bebagai motif sesuai dengan kebutuhan adat dan ciri khas budaya Toraja. Macam-macam motif tenunan adalah: Tenunan Pamiring khusus untuk sarung perempuan,Tenunan Sappa khusus untuk celana laki-laki, Tenunan Paramba' khusus untuk selimut, Tenunan Paruki' khusus taplak meja dan dekorasi atau hiasan dinding, tenunan Lando khusus tombi untuk pesta untuk pesta rambu solo' atau sapu randanan.





Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
GALUGA DUA

Tongkonan Layukna Galuga Dua merupakan salah satu tongkonan yang dijadikan pengadilan, selain digunakan untuk pengadilan terhadap pelanggaran adat yang menjadi tanggung jawab To'Perengnge, juga merupakan pusat musyawarah para pemimpin keluarga dari Tongkonan Galuga dua untuk menentukan suatu rencana. Terletak sekitar 12 Km, arah utara dari Rantepao, Tongkonan Layukna Puang Galuga Dua; ini dibangun pada tahun 1189 oleh kedua putra Galuga. Dari kedua putranya ini, masing-masing membangun Tongkonan yaitu Tongkonan Papabannu' dari putra pertama dan Banau Sura' dari putra keduanya.

Tongkonan Layukna Galuga selain tongkonan keluarga Galuga Dua juga merupakan pusat pertenunan dengan bebagai motif sesuai dengan kebutuhan adat dan ciri khas budaya Toraja. Macam-macam motif tenunan adalah: Tenunan Pamiring khusus untuk sarung perempuan,Tenunan Sappa khusus untuk celana laki-laki, Tenunan Paramba' khusus untuk selimut, Tenunan Paruki' khusus taplak meja dan dekorasi atau hiasan dinding, tenunan Lando khusus tombi untuk pesta untuk pesta rambu solo' atau sapu randanan.





Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
BUNTU PUNE

Obyek wisata Buntu Pune terletak ± 3 km arah selatan jurusan Ke'te' Kesu', Buntu Pune adalah salah satu permukiman yang dibangun oleh Pong Maramba' disekitar tahun 1880 dan merupakan pusat pemerintahannya setelah menjadi Parengnge' di wilayah Kesu' dan Tikala. Pada lokasi tersebut terdapat beberapa lumbung dan tongkonan yang dipindahkan dari daerah perbukitan dan lereng-lereng gunung batu oleh generasi berikutnya serta dibangun bertipe permukiman orang Toraja zaman dulu yang bernuansa exklusif, sukar dicapai musuh karena pos-pos pengintaian yang berlapis-lapis serta didukung oleh situasi alam di sekitarnya. Buntu Pune didukung oleh latar belakang batu cadas dimana pada dinding-dinding batu tersebut terdapat gua-gua alam yang juga dimanfaatkan untuk kuburan-kuburan leluhur. Dengan demikian kita banyak menjumpai erong (peti mayat purba) di dalam liang-liang tersebut. Di lokasi tersebut terdapat juga patane (kuburan dari semen) di puncak gunung batu yang dibuat sekitar tahun 1918 dan sampai saat ini masih digunakan. Buntu Pune sampai sekarang masih terpelihara dengan baik dan termasuk salah satu situs peninggalan sejarah dan kepurbakalaan pada suaka peninggalan sejarah dan purbakala Sulawesi Selatan dan Tenggara

Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
BUNTU PUNE

Obyek wisata Buntu Pune terletak ± 3 km arah selatan jurusan Ke'te' Kesu', Buntu Pune adalah salah satu permukiman yang dibangun oleh Pong Maramba' disekitar tahun 1880 dan merupakan pusat pemerintahannya setelah menjadi Parengnge' di wilayah Kesu' dan Tikala. Pada lokasi tersebut terdapat beberapa lumbung dan tongkonan yang dipindahkan dari daerah perbukitan dan lereng-lereng gunung batu oleh generasi berikutnya serta dibangun bertipe permukiman orang Toraja zaman dulu yang bernuansa exklusif, sukar dicapai musuh karena pos-pos pengintaian yang berlapis-lapis serta didukung oleh situasi alam di sekitarnya. Buntu Pune didukung oleh latar belakang batu cadas dimana pada dinding-dinding batu tersebut terdapat gua-gua alam yang juga dimanfaatkan untuk kuburan-kuburan leluhur. Dengan demikian kita banyak menjumpai erong (peti mayat purba) di dalam liang-liang tersebut. Di lokasi tersebut terdapat juga patane (kuburan dari semen) di puncak gunung batu yang dibuat sekitar tahun 1918 dan sampai saat ini masih digunakan. Buntu Pune sampai sekarang masih terpelihara dengan baik dan termasuk salah satu situs peninggalan sejarah dan kepurbakalaan pada suaka peninggalan sejarah dan purbakala Sulawesi Selatan dan Tenggara

Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
BUNTU KALANDO

Obyek wisata ini adalah Tongkonen Puang Sangalla' yang telah difungsikan sebagai museum dan home stay terletak di elurahan Kaero, kecematan Sangalla', 20 km dari kota Rantepao. Buntu Kalando mempunyai adat "Tando Tananan Lantangna Kaero Tongkonan Layuk" yaitu sebagai tempat kediaman Puang Sangalla'. Tonkonan ini dibangungun bersama dengan tiga lumbung padi (alang sura').

Buntu Kalando sebagai Tongkonan Tananan Lantangna Kaero Tongkonan Layuk dilengkapi dengan beraneka ragam tanduk yaitu tanduk kerbau, tanduk rusa, dan tanduk anoa terpampang di bagian muka tongkonan dua buah kabongo' yaitu satu kabongo' bonga sura' dan satu kabongo' pudu' serta di atasnya didudukkan katik yang menyerupai Langkan maega (burung elang), perlambang kebesaran.

Sebagai museum dalam tongkonan ini dilengkapi barang-barang koleksi antara lain:

Alat kerajaan Sangalla'
Pakaian kebesaran
Barang-barang bersejarah
Barang-barang antik
Alat-alat perang
Alat-alat ritus
Alat-alat pertanian
Alat-alat dapur
Alat-alat makan
Alat-alat minum
Barang-barang berchasiat (balo')
Demikian sejarah singkat Buntu Kalando, yang selalu siap menanti kunjungan anda.


Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
BUNTU KALANDO

Obyek wisata ini adalah Tongkonen Puang Sangalla' yang telah difungsikan sebagai museum dan home stay terletak di elurahan Kaero, kecematan Sangalla', 20 km dari kota Rantepao. Buntu Kalando mempunyai adat "Tando Tananan Lantangna Kaero Tongkonan Layuk" yaitu sebagai tempat kediaman Puang Sangalla'. Tonkonan ini dibangungun bersama dengan tiga lumbung padi (alang sura').

Buntu Kalando sebagai Tongkonan Tananan Lantangna Kaero Tongkonan Layuk dilengkapi dengan beraneka ragam tanduk yaitu tanduk kerbau, tanduk rusa, dan tanduk anoa terpampang di bagian muka tongkonan dua buah kabongo' yaitu satu kabongo' bonga sura' dan satu kabongo' pudu' serta di atasnya didudukkan katik yang menyerupai Langkan maega (burung elang), perlambang kebesaran.

Sebagai museum dalam tongkonan ini dilengkapi barang-barang koleksi antara lain:

Alat kerajaan Sangalla'
Pakaian kebesaran
Barang-barang bersejarah
Barang-barang antik
Alat-alat perang
Alat-alat ritus
Alat-alat pertanian
Alat-alat dapur
Alat-alat makan
Alat-alat minum
Barang-barang berchasiat (balo')
Demikian sejarah singkat Buntu Kalando, yang selalu siap menanti kunjungan anda.


Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
BUNTAO

Buntao adalah kampung yang sangat menarik untuk dikunjungi khususnya di waktu hari pasar. Buntao mempunyai patane, iaitu kuburan yang berbentuk rumah Toraja. Dan di atas bukit di sekitar kampung banyak terdapat kuburan tua.

Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
BUNTAO

Buntao adalah kampung yang sangat menarik untuk dikunjungi khususnya di waktu hari pasar. Buntao mempunyai patane, iaitu kuburan yang berbentuk rumah Toraja. Dan di atas bukit di sekitar kampung banyak terdapat kuburan tua.

Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
BORI

Obyek wisata utama adalah rante (tempat upacara pemakaman secara adat yang dilengkapi dengan buah menhir / megalit), dalam bahasa Toraja disebut simbuang batu. Seratus dua batu menhir yang berdiri dengan megah terdiri dari 24 buah ukuran besar, 24 buah ukuran sedang dan 54 buah ukuran kecil. Ukuran menhir ini mempunyai nilai adat yang sama. Penyebab perbedaan adalah situasi dan kondisi pada saat pembuatan / pengambilan batu, misalnya; masalah waktu, kemampuan biaya dan situasi pada masa kemasyarakatan. Megalit / simbuang batu hanya diadakan bila seorang pemuka masyarakat yang meninggal dunia dan upacaranya dilaksanakan dalam tingkat Rapasan Sapurandanan (kerbau yang dipotong sekurang-kurangnya 24 ekor). Pada tahun 1657 Rante Kalimbuang mulai digunakan pada upacara Pemakaman Ne'Ramba' dimana 100 ekor kerbau dikorbankan dan didirikan dua simbuang batu.

Selanjutnya pada tahun 1807 pada acara pemakaman Tonapa Ne'Padda' didirikan 5 buah simbuang batu, sedang kerbau yang dikorbankan sebanyak 200 ekor. Ne'Lunde yang pada upacaranya dikorbankan lebih dari 100 ekor kerbau didirikan 3 buah simbuang batu.
Selanjutnya berturut-turut sejak tahun 1907, banyak simbuang batu didirikan dalam ukuran besar, sedang, kecil dan secara khusus pada pemakaman Almarhumah Lai Datu (Ne' Kase') pada tahun 1935 didirikan satu buah simbuang batu yang terbesar dan tertinggi. Simbuang batu yang terakhir adalah pada upacara pemakaman Almarhum Sa'pang (Ne'Lai) pada tahun 1962.

Dalam kompleks Rante Kalimbuang tersebut terdapat juga hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan upacara pemakaman yaitu:

Lakkian yaitu persemayaman jenazah selama upacara dilaksanakan di Rante

Balakkayan yaitu panggung tempat membagi daging secara adat

Sarigan yaitu usungan jenasah Langi' yaitu bangunan induk menaungi sarigan

Liang Pa' / kuburan batu yang dipahat.


Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
BORI

Obyek wisata utama adalah rante (tempat upacara pemakaman secara adat yang dilengkapi dengan buah menhir / megalit), dalam bahasa Toraja disebut simbuang batu. Seratus dua batu menhir yang berdiri dengan megah terdiri dari 24 buah ukuran besar, 24 buah ukuran sedang dan 54 buah ukuran kecil. Ukuran menhir ini mempunyai nilai adat yang sama. Penyebab perbedaan adalah situasi dan kondisi pada saat pembuatan / pengambilan batu, misalnya; masalah waktu, kemampuan biaya dan situasi pada masa kemasyarakatan. Megalit / simbuang batu hanya diadakan bila seorang pemuka masyarakat yang meninggal dunia dan upacaranya dilaksanakan dalam tingkat Rapasan Sapurandanan (kerbau yang dipotong sekurang-kurangnya 24 ekor). Pada tahun 1657 Rante Kalimbuang mulai digunakan pada upacara Pemakaman Ne'Ramba' dimana 100 ekor kerbau dikorbankan dan didirikan dua simbuang batu.

Selanjutnya pada tahun 1807 pada acara pemakaman Tonapa Ne'Padda' didirikan 5 buah simbuang batu, sedang kerbau yang dikorbankan sebanyak 200 ekor. Ne'Lunde yang pada upacaranya dikorbankan lebih dari 100 ekor kerbau didirikan 3 buah simbuang batu.
Selanjutnya berturut-turut sejak tahun 1907, banyak simbuang batu didirikan dalam ukuran besar, sedang, kecil dan secara khusus pada pemakaman Almarhumah Lai Datu (Ne' Kase') pada tahun 1935 didirikan satu buah simbuang batu yang terbesar dan tertinggi. Simbuang batu yang terakhir adalah pada upacara pemakaman Almarhum Sa'pang (Ne'Lai) pada tahun 1962.

Dalam kompleks Rante Kalimbuang tersebut terdapat juga hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan upacara pemakaman yaitu:

Lakkian yaitu persemayaman jenazah selama upacara dilaksanakan di Rante

Balakkayan yaitu panggung tempat membagi daging secara adat

Sarigan yaitu usungan jenasah Langi' yaitu bangunan induk menaungi sarigan

Liang Pa' / kuburan batu yang dipahat.


Obyek wisata di Tana Toraja, daerah yang cantik di Indonesia

issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
BATUTUMONGA



Berlokasi di daerah Sesean yang beriklim dingin, sekitar 1300 meter di atas permukaan laut. Di daerah ini terdapat 56 menhir batu dalam sebuah lingkaran dengan lima pohon kayu ditengahnya. Kebanyakan dari batu menhir itu berukuran dua sampai tiga meter tingginya. Pemandangan yang sangat mempesona di atas Rantepao dan lembah disekitarnya, dapat dilihat dari tempat ini sangat menarik untuk dikunjungi.



Read More...... issued March 1999 by Dinas Parawisata Daerah Tk. II Tana Toraja
BATUTUMONGA



Berlokasi di daerah Sesean yang beriklim dingin, sekitar 1300 meter di atas permukaan laut. Di daerah ini terdapat 56 menhir batu dalam sebuah lingkaran dengan lima pohon kayu ditengahnya. Kebanyakan dari batu menhir itu berukuran dua sampai tiga meter tingginya. Pemandangan yang sangat mempesona di atas Rantepao dan lembah disekitarnya, dapat dilihat dari tempat ini sangat menarik untuk dikunjungi.



Senin, 21 Juli 2008

7 Kiat Membangun Bisnis Online

by Fino Yurio Kristo - detikinet



Jakarta - Bisnis di internet kian menjanjikan. Ingin ikut serta menjual jasa atau barang Anda di dunia maya? Simak langkah awal membangun bisnis online berikut ini seperti dikutip detikINET dari Independent, Senin (9/6/2008).

1. Rancang Bisnis dengan Cermat

Rancang rencana bisnis online Anda dengan cermat. Pertimbangkan segala aspek seperti target pasar, kemampuan pesaing, sumber daya, bagaimana membangun loyalitas konsumen atau menjalin kemitraan strategis. Pakai referensi memadai, misalnya belajar dari situs bisnis di internet.

2. Temukan Sasaran Pasar Spesifik

Bisa jadi ide bisnis online Anda brilian, namun itu tak ada artinya jika tidak ada sasaran pasar yang spesifik. Temukan celah pasar yang belum digarap pesaing. Jika Anda bertarung dengan pemain besar, pastikan bisnis Anda memiliki diferensiasi yang menarik konsumen.

3. Cari Sumber Keuangan

Rencanakan dari mana Anda akan mendapat modal sebagai sumber dana bisnis online. Pinjaman bank bisa jadi pilihan yang baik. Jangan lupa untuk membuat administrasi keuangan yang rapi sehingga arus keluar masuk tampak jelas.

4. Buat Situs yang Handal

Anda memang bisa memanfaatkan blog yang gratis untuk memulai bisnis. Namun jika berniat serius, belilah domain dan sewa perancang situs yang handal. Pastikan situs Anda tidak rumit, memudahkan pengakses serta selalu update.

5. Promosi Jitu

Salah satu aspek terpenting dalam bisnis online adalah promosi yang jitu. Bisa dicoba bermacam metode, misalnya via Google AdWords di mana pengiklan hanya membayar sesuai jumlah pengakses situsnya. Manfaatkan pula e-mail atau situs jejaring untuk mempromosikan bisnis Anda pada banyak orang.


6. Permudah Transaksi Konsumen

Konsumen harus dimudahkan dalam melakukan transaksi dan pemesanan di situs Anda. Berikan pula tingkat keamanan situs yang memadai sehingga konsumen percaya detail identitas mereka tidak bocor. Tanpa transaksi dari konsumen, bisnis Anda pasti ambruk.

7. Motivasi untuk Terus Maju

Selalu butuh waktu agar bisnis internet berkembang. Sebagai entrepeneur online, Anda perlu energi, antusiasme, determinasi, dan gairah untuk maju. Perlu disadari bahwa sukses besar di bisnis internet cukup langka. Namun tak perlu pula kecil hati karena cerita kesuksesan bisnis online sudah amat banyak.


Read More...... by Fino Yurio Kristo - detikinet



Jakarta - Bisnis di internet kian menjanjikan. Ingin ikut serta menjual jasa atau barang Anda di dunia maya? Simak langkah awal membangun bisnis online berikut ini seperti dikutip detikINET dari Independent, Senin (9/6/2008).

1. Rancang Bisnis dengan Cermat

Rancang rencana bisnis online Anda dengan cermat. Pertimbangkan segala aspek seperti target pasar, kemampuan pesaing, sumber daya, bagaimana membangun loyalitas konsumen atau menjalin kemitraan strategis. Pakai referensi memadai, misalnya belajar dari situs bisnis di internet.

2. Temukan Sasaran Pasar Spesifik

Bisa jadi ide bisnis online Anda brilian, namun itu tak ada artinya jika tidak ada sasaran pasar yang spesifik. Temukan celah pasar yang belum digarap pesaing. Jika Anda bertarung dengan pemain besar, pastikan bisnis Anda memiliki diferensiasi yang menarik konsumen.

3. Cari Sumber Keuangan

Rencanakan dari mana Anda akan mendapat modal sebagai sumber dana bisnis online. Pinjaman bank bisa jadi pilihan yang baik. Jangan lupa untuk membuat administrasi keuangan yang rapi sehingga arus keluar masuk tampak jelas.

4. Buat Situs yang Handal

Anda memang bisa memanfaatkan blog yang gratis untuk memulai bisnis. Namun jika berniat serius, belilah domain dan sewa perancang situs yang handal. Pastikan situs Anda tidak rumit, memudahkan pengakses serta selalu update.

5. Promosi Jitu

Salah satu aspek terpenting dalam bisnis online adalah promosi yang jitu. Bisa dicoba bermacam metode, misalnya via Google AdWords di mana pengiklan hanya membayar sesuai jumlah pengakses situsnya. Manfaatkan pula e-mail atau situs jejaring untuk mempromosikan bisnis Anda pada banyak orang.


6. Permudah Transaksi Konsumen

Konsumen harus dimudahkan dalam melakukan transaksi dan pemesanan di situs Anda. Berikan pula tingkat keamanan situs yang memadai sehingga konsumen percaya detail identitas mereka tidak bocor. Tanpa transaksi dari konsumen, bisnis Anda pasti ambruk.

7. Motivasi untuk Terus Maju

Selalu butuh waktu agar bisnis internet berkembang. Sebagai entrepeneur online, Anda perlu energi, antusiasme, determinasi, dan gairah untuk maju. Perlu disadari bahwa sukses besar di bisnis internet cukup langka. Namun tak perlu pula kecil hati karena cerita kesuksesan bisnis online sudah amat banyak.


9 Shortcut di IE7 untuk Percepat Browsing

by Dewi Widya Ningrum - detikinet

Jakarta - Dengan tombol shortcut di browser Internet Explorer 7 (IE7), yakni dengan menekan kombinasi tombol yang ada di keyboard, waktu dalam menjelajahi internet semakin efektif. Shortcut memungkinkan kita lebih cepat memanggil fungsi-fungsi yang ada di IE7.

Berikut ini beberapa shortcut yang berhubungan dengan tabs di IE7 untuk mempercepat browsing, yang dikutip detikINET dari Vlaurie, Rabu (11/6/2008):

1. Ctrl+click: membuka link dalam sebuah tab baru.
2. Ctrl+t: membuka sebuah tab kosong.
3. Ctrl+tab: untuk berpindah dari satu tab ke tab lain.
4. Ctrl+shift+tab: berpindah dari satu tab ke tab lain dengan arah kebalikan dari Ctrl+tab.
5. Ctrl+w: menutup tab yang sedang dibuka.
6. Ctrl+q: membuka tab dalam tampilan thumbnail
7. Ctrl+n: membuka window browser baru
8. Klik link dengan scroll mouse: membuka link dalam sebuah tab baru.
9. Klik tab dengan scroll mouse: menutup tab yang sedang dibuka.


Read More...... by Dewi Widya Ningrum - detikinet

Jakarta - Dengan tombol shortcut di browser Internet Explorer 7 (IE7), yakni dengan menekan kombinasi tombol yang ada di keyboard, waktu dalam menjelajahi internet semakin efektif. Shortcut memungkinkan kita lebih cepat memanggil fungsi-fungsi yang ada di IE7.

Berikut ini beberapa shortcut yang berhubungan dengan tabs di IE7 untuk mempercepat browsing, yang dikutip detikINET dari Vlaurie, Rabu (11/6/2008):

1. Ctrl+click: membuka link dalam sebuah tab baru.
2. Ctrl+t: membuka sebuah tab kosong.
3. Ctrl+tab: untuk berpindah dari satu tab ke tab lain.
4. Ctrl+shift+tab: berpindah dari satu tab ke tab lain dengan arah kebalikan dari Ctrl+tab.
5. Ctrl+w: menutup tab yang sedang dibuka.
6. Ctrl+q: membuka tab dalam tampilan thumbnail
7. Ctrl+n: membuka window browser baru
8. Klik link dengan scroll mouse: membuka link dalam sebuah tab baru.
9. Klik tab dengan scroll mouse: menutup tab yang sedang dibuka.


Minggu, 20 Juli 2008

6 Langkah Mempercantik Windows dengan MSStyle

by Arimurti - detikinet

Jakarta - Untuk mempercantik tampilan Windows, MS Style bisa menjadi salah satu solusinya. Ms Style adalah semacam add-ons/theme yang dibuat oleh Microsoft untuk mengubah tampilan (theme) Windows.

Ada banyak situs yang menyediakan file Ms Style yang cantik dan menarik. Salah satunya adalah studiotwentyeight.com. Melalui situs ini, Anda dapat mendownload wallpaper terbaik dengan kualitas gambar yang sangat baik (High Quality Wallpaper), icon-icon pengganti icon standar windows dan yang pasti Anda bisa mendownload file-file Ms Style.

Untuk dapat mempercantik tampilan Windows dengan menggunakan Ms Style, Anda membutuhkan software UXTheme Multi-Patcher (Neowin Edition) 4.0.

Berikut caranya:

1. Download dan instal UXTheme Multi-Patcher (Neowin Edition) 4.0
2. Restart komputer.
3. Download file Ms Style yang Anda inginkan di www.studiotwentyeight.com
4. Extract file Ms Style ke C:\Windows\Resource\Themes
5. Buka Display Properties > Appearance > Windows and Button
6. Pilih theme Ms Style yang Anda inginkan dan klik tombol Apply.

Selamat mencoba!


Read More...... by Arimurti - detikinet

Jakarta - Untuk mempercantik tampilan Windows, MS Style bisa menjadi salah satu solusinya. Ms Style adalah semacam add-ons/theme yang dibuat oleh Microsoft untuk mengubah tampilan (theme) Windows.

Ada banyak situs yang menyediakan file Ms Style yang cantik dan menarik. Salah satunya adalah studiotwentyeight.com. Melalui situs ini, Anda dapat mendownload wallpaper terbaik dengan kualitas gambar yang sangat baik (High Quality Wallpaper), icon-icon pengganti icon standar windows dan yang pasti Anda bisa mendownload file-file Ms Style.

Untuk dapat mempercantik tampilan Windows dengan menggunakan Ms Style, Anda membutuhkan software UXTheme Multi-Patcher (Neowin Edition) 4.0.

Berikut caranya:

1. Download dan instal UXTheme Multi-Patcher (Neowin Edition) 4.0
2. Restart komputer.
3. Download file Ms Style yang Anda inginkan di www.studiotwentyeight.com
4. Extract file Ms Style ke C:\Windows\Resource\Themes
5. Buka Display Properties > Appearance > Windows and Button
6. Pilih theme Ms Style yang Anda inginkan dan klik tombol Apply.

Selamat mencoba!